Thornwaldt Cyst Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Cancer, Treatment

Nasopharyngeal cyst and tornwaldt cyst are the two other named of thornwaldt cyst. This cyst is located in the upper posterior nasopharyngeal region. It is benign in nature. This benign cyst can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging MRI and computed tomography scan CT scan of head. It can be seen as a round mass present in midline of head. This cyst was named after a scientist named Gustav ludwig tornwaldt. Treatment is not necessary in most of the cases. Usually it is diagnosed incidentally during flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. It is asymptomatic in nature and infected fluid may extrude from it.

Thornwaldt Cyst Symptoms


The common symptoms associated with thornwaldt cyst include headache in the occipital region of brain (most common symptom), effusion in middle ear, cervical myalgia and halitosis. Symptoms also depends upon the severity and size of the cyst. When the thornwaldt cyst is infected and become large in size, patient may complain about nasal obstruction, post natal discharge along with bad breathe in mouth, patient's body may produce foul smelling odour and headache. Eustachian tube may get obstructed and this is defined in a term otalgia. Other than this, there may be secretary otitis media.

Thornwaldt Cyst Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Cancer, Treatment

Thornwaldt Cyst Causes


Thornwaldt cyst show the non specific symptoms which make it difficult to diagnose. The main cause being its occurrence may be the congenital one. Congenital remnant of the notocord and pharyngeal ectoderm in the upper posterior nasopharynx is counted as the main cause behind it. The tissue residues which combines to form a pouch or bursa is responsible for the formation of cyst. The superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx is involved on which the thornwaldt cyst form. The mucous membrane of nasopharynx covers it all over. It is an uncommon cyst which has a occurrence rate of 0.2 to 4 percent.

Thornwaldt Cyst Cancer


Thornwaldt cyst is benign in nature but it can be converted in to a malignant one if the cyst become infected. The infected cyst start secreting infected fluid from it. When this fluid get in touch with other parts of brain, it makes them effected. This is how it converted in to malignant thornwaldt cyst from benign one. The malignant thornwaldt cyst may prove fatal for patient because of the most sensitive region involvement in this cyst. Due to its malignancy, the symptoms become worse and vary from common symptoms of benign cyst.

Thornwaldt Cyst Treatment


Talking about the treatment of thornwaldt, the treatment is not necessary. As it is asymptomatic, which makes the treatment un necessary. In case the benign thornwaldt cyst turns in to a malignant one, then an endoscopy naked trans nasal endoscopy marsupialization. In this endoscopy, the infected drainage of malignant cyst along with enlarged cysts can be drained easily out of the brain. This is the only treatment for this cyst. Usually headache is counted as a common symptom and pain killers are administered to relief such symptoms. If the malignant thornwaldt cyst is left untreated, then it may prove fatal for patient.

Trichodynia definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trichodynia is condition of scalp in which patient feels pain, itching and burning sensation in scalp. It is also termed as burning scalp syndrome. It commonly occurs in females as compared to men. It is estimated that in women, trichodynia occurs three times more as compared to men. Trichodynia is associated with the nerves of scalp connected to nervous system. These nerves carry signals to control center and brain response to pain. It has a close relationship with hair loss. The nerves involved in trichodynia, are extremely sensitive nerves. The sensitive nerves along with hair fall can trigger each other in this disease.

Scalp itching is also reported in most of the cases. It is a common disease, seen in women. Patient can feel the increased intensity of pain while combing hair or touching scalp with bare hands. Trichodynia may occur secondary to some diseases. These diseases include androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium. In later one, patient face problem in growth of hair due to some environmental factors and child birth factors. Hair loss is permanent in case of androgenetic alopecia. It is concluded that hair loss is the most common symptom associated with trichodynia or burning scalp syndrome.

Trichodynia definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trichodynia Symptoms


Symptoms of trichodynia are simple and can be observed easily. Pain is the main symptom associated with it. The nerves of the scalp are highly sensitive. Patient may have a feeling of pricking scalp skin. Itching and burning of scalp are also observed in most of the cases. Due to itching, patient may have wound on scalp along with redness. Hair fall is the common complication of trichodynia. All the above mentioned symptoms should be treated on time, otherwise these will become severe and irreversible. In this condition, production of sebum and dandruff have not seen in any of the case.

Trichodynia Causes


The most common reasons behind trichodynia are listed below:

  • It may occur due to incomplete drying of hair after taking shower. As it may damage the hair follicles.
  • Due to tight hair binding, trichodynia may occur. Because hair follicles can't breathe properly.
  • Due to deficiency of vitamin D, hair follicles may weaken and leads to trichodynia.
  • Hair conditioners which are dry and intense can destroy the hair follicles leading to trichodynia.
  • Mostly people are allergic to hair dye and can develop trichodynia.
  • It may occur secondary to stress, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. And these have direct relationship with trichodynia.


Trichodynia Treatment


Trichodynia is the common condition with a lot a causes and symptoms. To treat the symptoms of trichodynia, the causes should be treated. If hair loss or the associated trichodynia occur due to stress and anxiety and depression then anti depressants are prescribed. In case of decreased vitamin D level, vitamin D injections are prescribed. There are some precautions too in case of handling wet hair, which helps a lot in avoiding occurrence of trichodynia. In case of cosmetic products allergy, these products should be avoided. If necessary, use the medicated cosmetic products.

Ameloblastic Fibroma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ameoblastic fibroma is a type of tumor present in the oral cavity. It is an odotogenic tumor in which there is no production of enamel, cementum or dentin. In this condition, the immature masenchymal or epidermal cells of teeth are proliferate. Ameoblastic fibroma is neoplastic in nature but sometimes it may be hamartomatous in nature i.e. an odontoma. The most common site of occurrence is the posterior region of mandible. It also occurs on maxilla but extremely rare. Children are commonly prone to this odontogenic tumor.

The diagnosis of ameoblastic fibroma is very important. According to its location of occurrence, it is divided in to two main types i.e. maxillary ameoblastic fibroma and mandibular ameoblastic fibroma. It is benign in nature and does not spread to the whole mouth. When we say it is neoplastic in nature, then there is another term which is used to describe it better i.e. ameoblastic fibrosarcoma. Fibroma is another word which is used to describe the benign tumor but fibrosarcoma is used to describe its malignancy. It commonly occur in the first two decades of life. The most common cause reported behind ameoblastic fibroma is the presence of an unerupted teeth. Diagnosis of this tumor is really necessary to make it different from malignant one.

Ameloblastic Fibroma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ameoblastic Fibroma Symptoms


Ameoblastic fibroma has some specific symptoms which are limited in number. It commonly occur in children and in young adults usually between the age of 15 to 25 years. Swelling can be seen easily with a naked eye. The jaw expands and looks wider than usual. No pain is associated with it. Ameoblastic fibroma appear as a unilocular radiolucency. It most commonly occur on the mandible jaw line and rarely involves maxilla. These are basically the lesions which are benign in nature but may turn in to malignant ones.

Ameoblastic Fibroma Causes


There are not much causes reported behind the occurrence of ameoblastic fibroma. In almost more than 50 percent of cases, an unerupted tooth is reported as a major cause. Ameoblastic fibroma is basically a lesion which turns in to a tumor. The tumor is benign in nature I.e. odontogenic but it may turn in to malignant one later i.e. neoplastic. The formation of tooth enamel is disturbed. Lesion may occur due to any infection in the teeth. Other than this, lesions may also occur due to hard food particles during chewing and swallowing food

Ameoblastic Fibroma Treatment


Ameoblastic fibroma can be treated with a surgical excision of tumor. The surgery which is performed to clear the tumor cells is known as enucleation. In enucleation, the tumor cells are removed with the help of surgical instruments and the curretage of the normal bone surrounding it is also reported. Enucleation is a safe process and a localized one. In this surgical procedure, only the tumor cells are removed without any loss to the adjacent teeth. The rate of re-occurrence is higher in case of non hygienic conditions. So proper care is needed after surgery to control it's re-occurrence.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Adenomatoid and odontogenic are two different terms. To completely understand adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, these terms should be clear. Adenomatoid tumor means a type of tumor which originated from the lining of an organ. And odontogenic tumor is the cyst formation in the jaw. Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development. Now combining both of these terms, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is defined as the tumor or cyst which occurs in the jaws and orginiates from the enamel of jaws or dental lamina.

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is not a common disease and occur preferably in young people. Almost two third of cases are reported in women. Diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is important to confirm it's presence and to select the most accurate type of treatment. On radiographic imaging, this tumor appears as a dark colored region which is present around the erupted. The erupted teeth also involves the cementoenamel junction. It is usually mixed with dentigerous cyst so the differential diagnosis is important. The difference is in the radiolucencies of these two conditions. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor extends apically and spread beyond the cementoenamel junction. Usually it is misdiagnosed as a cyst. So it is concluded that diagnosis is an important factor in case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Symptoms


Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor usually does not have symptoms. It usually occur on maxillary jaw and rarely occur on mandibular jaw. Almost two third cases of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor involves anterior maxilla and one third cases involves anterior mandible. Some of the cases are associated with impacted tooth i.e. canine. There are no systemic symptoms associated with adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. It can be easily seen as a dark colored region around the unerupted teeth I.e. canine. It spread beyond the cementoenamel junction of teeth which makes it easier to diagnose.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Causes


Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a dental tumor which involves the enamel if associated teeth. It is also termed as hamartomatous. It may occur due to a lesion in the maxillary or mandibular jaw. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is benign in nature. It is a rare type of tumor which mainly effect females at the 2nd  decade of their life. Lesion may occur due to a maxillary canine teeth which is impacted. Impacted canine is the common cause of lesion, but it may also occur as a result of hard food particles during chewing and swallowing.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Treatment


Treatment of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor involves surgical removal of cells. And this specific surgery is known as enucleation. In enucleation, the mass or tissues which are involved in tumor are surgically removed without any dissection or cutting of lesion. It can be performed for eyes, oral cavity and uterine tumors. In enucleation, the tissues which are soft and hard , both are removed surgically. Only those tissues are removed which are involved in lesion. This is the only type of treatment for adenomatoid odontogenic tumor which is effective. As there are no symptoms, so no medications are used for the symptoms.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Propriospinal myoclonus is a condition in which patient feels repetitive jerking of neck, trunk, hips and knees. The jerking is painless. It is a rare disease. This body jerking may occur in response to any stimulous or it may be spontaneous. If the patient is in lying position, then this body jerking may become worse. Sometimes there are some symptoms attached to this jerking like patient may feel tingling at the back side of neck, an electric current like sensation or a clicking sensation in the head can precede the jerks.

There are some common causes behind it like it can occur secondary to some medications, a lesson in the spinal region and some kind of infection in body. In most of the cases, the exact cause is unknown. Researchers believe to some extent that there is some psychogenic component in propriospinal myoclonus. Talking about the word myoclonus, it is an involuntary and quick movement of muscles. Hiccups is the type of myoclonus. It can usually be felt before sleep. Hiccups is healthy type of myoclonus. The treatment of propriospinal myoclonus is based on the underlying cause. But if the exact cause behind it is unknown, then treatment is based on reducing the effects of myoclonus on patient.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Propriospinal Myoclonus Symptoms


It is a rare disease with abnormal muscle movement. The muscle jerk is abnormal and sudden. Usually jerks occur in neck, trunk, knee and hips. The symptoms appear suddenly. These are brief and ends on it's own after some time. These jerks are involuntary in nature and cannot be controlled. The intensity and frequency of these jerks varies every time. Sometimes it is localized to a specific part of body and sometimes it involves the whole body. Sometimes the symptoms are severe enough that patient can't even eat, speak or walk properly.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Causes


In most of the cases, the cause is idiopathic i.e. the exact cause is unknown. But in some cases , the recorded causes include any kind of infection in body, injury or lesion in the spinal region of brain and it may occur secondary to some medications. The exact diagnosis for the cause is necessary because it makes the treatment easier. There are some healthy myoclonus which normally occur in person like hiccups, before sleep starts. Body shaking due to any stress and anxiety. Exercises can also cause myoclonus. Usually the onset is sudden and resolve on it's own.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Treatment


Propriospinal myoclonus can be treated by treating the underlying cause. The cause has it's respective treatment plan which can help in treating propriospinal myoclonus. There are some medications which are used in treatment. These medications include tranquilizers and anticonvulsants. Clonazepam is the tranquilizer which is commonly prescribed. Levetiracetam is the anticonvulsant which is effective. Botox injections are also helpful in treating propriospinal myoclonus. If these medications does not work, then surgery is the option. Surgery is performed in case of lesion in the spinal region of brain. Deep brain stimulation is another technique used in treatment.

Mediastinotomy Definition, Procedure, Complications, Cervical Approach

Mediastinotomy is a surgical procedure in which a small opening is made in mediastinum to take a view of inside of cavity between lungs and chest wall. Through this hole or opening, an endoscope is introduced which shows the inner part of lungs. The introduction of endoscope in mediastinum opening, is termed as mediastinoscopy. These two process are complementary to each other. Mediastinum is the protective layer which separates two cavities. It is present outside the lungs boundary and separates lungs from the chest wall cavity. In case of any pulmonary problem, mediastinotomy is performed to check the inner functioning. This procedure is performed for the purpose of biopsy.

Biopsy is the diagnostic test which is performed to take samples from any site of body. Mediastinotomy is performed in case of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and to evaluate the stage of lung cancer and esophageal cancer. There are many other procedures which are introduced now a days to evaluate the stage of cancer and the need of mediastinotomy has decreased. It is a simple process with almost zero complications. But there are some conditions in which mediastinotomy is contraindicated. These conditions include tracheostomy, median sternostomy, superior vena cava syndrome, aneurysm of aortic arch and last but not least previous mediastinal irradiation.

Mediastinotomy Definition, Procedure, Complications, Cervical Approach

Mediastinotomy Procedure


After administration of general anesthesia, surgeon will make a small incision in the chest and will move aside the muscles to check the inner view. Now with the help of surgical instruments, surgeon will take samples inside of cavity. The space between the lungs and heart is also examined. After taking sample for test, the wound will be sewed again. The stitches and wound will be covered with bandage or dressing. The total time required for the surgery is about 30 min to 2 hours. Patient may feel a little bit of pain during procedure.

Mediastinotomy Complications


There are less than 1 percent complications associated with mediastinotomy. So it is a safe procedure. But the possible complications for mediastinotomy are

Hoarseness, excessive bleeding, anemia due to loss of blood, there may be an infection due to unsterilized instruments and open wound. Lymphatic fluid may leak in to the chest which is termed as chylothorax. The organs of chest cavity may get damaged. Pneumothorax is the common complication in which air got trapped in between the chest wall and lungs. Patient should avoid all those factors which may increase the chances of complications. These factors include smoking, some chronic diseases and drinking.

Mediastinotomy Cervical Approach


Mediastinotomy can also be performed in case of problem in mediastinum in cervix of brain. It is performed to evaluate staging of mediastinal lymphadenopathy nodes specially in patients suffering from bronchogenic carcinoma. It is performed to take mediastinal masses. It is a simple procedure even in case of cervical mediastinotomy. The morbidity and mortality rate of cervical mediastinotomy is also extremely low. The useful aspects of this surgery are greater in number. But now a days other procedures have been introduced to do biopsy of brain. Mediastinotomy of cervical region is a complicated and hard task but the results are good.

Hypoglycorrhachia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoglycorrhachia is a condition in which the level of glucose is low in the cerebrospinal fluid. The name indicates hypo means less and glycorrhachia defines the level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid. Basically glycorrhachia is a measurement which describes the level of glucose. The level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid is proportional to the level of glucose in blood. Glucose in cerebrospinal fluid corresponds 60 to 70 percent of the concentration in blood. The range of glucose level in CSF is 2.5 to 4.4 mmol/L. Converting it into mg per dL it becomes 45 to 80 mg per dL.

There may be many reasons behind the lower level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid some of them are infections in Central nervous system, subarachnoid hemorrhage, increased glycotic activity of central nervous system, inflammatory conditions, hypoglycemia and many more. Glucose level in cerebrospinal fluid is a diagnostic parameter for many brain diseases mainly meningitis. 50 to 60 percent of patients with bacterial Meningitis have decreased glucose level in cerebrospinal fluid. If there is any infection in brain, then the the process of glycolysis is increased. Glycolysis is done by both white blood cells and the pathogens which in turn responsible for decreased amount of glucose.

Hypoglycorrhachia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoglycorrhachia Symptoms


Talking about the symptoms of hypoglycorrhachia, it mostly resemble a condition named neuroglycopenia. Some of the common symptoms are as follows:

  • Mental confusion.
  • Patient face difficulty in concentrating on something.
  • Dysarthria
  • Headache
  • Changes in behavior
  • Staring.
  • Disturbance in vision.
  • Diplopia and decreased acuity
  • Somnolence
  • Coma is the serious complication.
  • Ataxia.
  • Seizures
  • Dizziness
  • Decerebrate or decorticate posturing
  • Stroke
  • Amnesia
  • Paresthesias.


Hemiplegia and last but not least aphasia.

All these symptoms are the indication of decreased level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid. All these symptoms are associated with brain due to which the whole body functioning is disturbed.

Hypoglycorrhachia Causes


There are different causes of hypoglycorrhachia but mainly it is secondary to brain diseases. Infections of Central nervous system are the main cause of hypoglycorrhachia. As in infection, the glycolysis process is increased by both white blood cells and pathogens. This cerebrospinal fluid has impaired glucose and pass through blood brain barrier. Other than infections of CNS, inflammatory infections, impaired glucose transport, metastatic carcinoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and increased glycolytic activity in CNS. Hypoglycorrhachia is also a diagnostic parameter for brain diseases like meningitis. In bacterial Meningitis, the level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid is low but in viral Meningitis, the level of glucose is normal.

Hypoglycorrhachia Treatment


Hypoglycorrhachia treatment is important because if it is left untreated, then it may prove fatal for health. As it does not occur on it's own and is secondary to some diseases. So treating the underlying disease will ultimately treat hypoglycorrhachia. If there is any infection, then treating the infection will help. Antibiotics are used for that purpose. The no. Of pathogens will decrease and glycolysis will also decrease. Inflammatory diseases can also be treated with NSAIDS. like wise all the other causes can be treated with their respective treatments.

Patulous Esophagus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Patulous esophagus is defined as widening of the esophagus. Patulous is a word which means opening up or distended and esophagus is a tube which is hollow and muscular. Esophagus connects throat to the stomach. There are two sphincters in esophagus. One sphincter is present at the upper end of stomach and is known as pyloric sphincter other sphincter is present at the lower end of stomach which is named as distill sphincter. In patulous esophagus, these sphincters become wide open which causes difficulty in digestion. It leads to various complications and the most common one is gastroesophageal reflux.

The food content passes rapidly through the esophagus and causes problem in metabolism. Esophagus is the main part of gastrointestinal tract and any problem in this part can disturb the whole system of digestion. It is a common condition and can affect 90 Percent of patients with disorder. In patulous esophagus, the distill part ofesophagus is usually affected (distill two third part).  In patulous esophagus, patient commonly experience nausea, vomiting, dysphagia and dyspepsia. Other than these, some symptoms occur which belongs to the larynx of esophagus. Talking about the causes of patulous esophagus, there are various contributing factors which causes this problem.

Patulous Esophagus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Patulous Esophagus Symptoms


Patulous esophagus is the widening of esophagus which causes problem with the digestion and metabolism of food. The following symptoms are associated with this.

  • Patient may feel heaviness in stomach.
  • The metabolism becomes fast and patient may feel warmth in body.
  • Nausea is the common symptom.
  • Some of the patient may experience vomiting too.
  • Dyspepsia is another symptom in which the stomach acid does not work properly.
  • Dysphagia is also the symptom in which patient face problems in digestion.
  • Some of the symptoms are associated with the larynx part. These symptoms include hoarseness, pharyngitis and cough.


Patulous Esophagus Causes


There may be different causes behind patulous esophagus. Some of the common causes include Barrett's esophagus. In Barrett's esophagus, the inner lining of esophagus i.e. lumen is replaced with some other tissues which causes problem in digestion. Gerd is another main cause of patulous esophagus. Gerd is the abbreviation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In this disease, due to widening of esophagus, the gastric contents move backwards to the esophagus. Other than these disorders, patulous esophagus may occur due to any infection because infection in esophagus can disturb the normal Flora and as a result complications occur.

Patulous Esophagus Treatment


Patulous esophagus can be treated with a surgery. And the surgery is named as laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Nissen fundoplication is another name of this surgery. It is performed to create a valve mechanism at the distill end of esophagus. This separate valve system helps a lot in avoiding the esophageal problems. It is mainly performed in gerd to avoid food content reflux. Patients who have not had abdominal surgery ever, may have this surgery. It is recommended in case of severe patulous esophagus. There are some medications which are used initially to treat this condition without surgery.

Dacryolith Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dacryolith is the cast formation which occurs inside the nasolacrimal sac. The formation of dacryolith may produce obstruction of the normal lacrimal drainage. Basically the shed epithelial cells form the dacryolith. Other than shed epithelial cells, amorphous debris and lipids also form dacryolith. It either contain traces of calcium in it or does not have calcium traces. Usually there isn't any abnormality or inciting event is reported in dacryolith. Dacryolith is a usual condition and may occur secondary to some medications like topical epinephrine. Infection related to some specific species i.e. candida species or actinomyces Israelii.

Dacryolith may form in patients having normal lacrimal drainage system. Dacryolith is the condition, which when occurs leads to intermittent symptoms. Symptoms also depends upon the location of formation of dacryolith. Dacryolith may occur secondary to any preexisting obstruction, in this case,  the symptoms are unremitting. Acute impaction of the dacryolith in the normal lacrimal drainage may leads to distension of lacrimal fluid sac. Substantial pain is associated with this acute impaction of dacryolith. During DCR, dacryolith cast can be easily removed. Dacryolith is like a stone which is hard on touch and can be felt easily without touching. Pain confirms the formation of dacryolith.

Dacryolith Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dacryolith Symptoms


The symptoms of dacryolith are intermittent. Patient feels pain. Intermittent epiphora is the main symptom which occurs without inflammation. There is no recurrent dacryocystitis. In some cases , dacryoliths formation can be associated with acute or chronic dacryocystitis. In some cases, inflammation may also occur. The symptoms of dacryolith may be intermittent or persistent and it all depends on the location of dacryolith cast. If Dacryolith forms in the normal lacrimal drainage due to the preexisting obstruction, intermittent symptoms appear. Patient may feel pain and itching at the location of occurrence if Dacryolith cast in lacrimal drainage.

Dacryolith Causes


Dacryolith can occur due to many reasons. The exact main cause is still unknown. But the reported main causes include some infections. Infection because of actinomyces Israelii and candida species are responsible for the formation of Dacryolith. It may occur secondary to some medications like epinephrine. Secondary to medications, the cast formed is easier to cure. Long term administration of topical medications contribute a lot towards its formation. It usually occur in patients with normal lacrimal drainage system. There is not any gender priority as it equally effects both male and female. Its occurrence is sudden.

Dacryolith Treatment


Dacryolith is treated with a surgical process named dacryocystorhinostomy. Its abbreviation is DCR. In this procedure, the epiphora or Dacryolith is teared due to the blockage of lacrimal duct of nose. Another procedure named endoscopic Dacryolith is performed to treat any obstruction in the lacrimal duct. It is a simple process and patient will take about 7 to 10 days to recover completely. In this procedure, a hole is made between the inner side of nose and the tear sac. And this hole helps in the removal of debris from the sac. The debria or lipids which accumulate in the lacrimal drainage system, can be easily removed with this surgery.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Juvenile gigantomastia is a rare and benign condition in which the size of breast abnormally increase during adolescence. It may occur on either side of breast. The exact cause behind this condition us unknown and the factors which contribute towards it's occurrence include puberty, secondary to medications and pregnancy. This condition specifically occurs in women and does not occur in men. The breast growth is normal and take about years to develop fully. In juvenile gigantomastia, the breast grows bigger in size within days. The growth is faster than usual and the breast grows bigger in size within days.

Patient may experience pain in breast, back pain, infection and some posture problems. Juvenile gigantomastia is a benign condition which cause physical disability if not treated. It is non cancerous and does not spread. Is some cases, juvenile gigantomastia may resolve on it's own after some specific time period but if not, then breast reduction surgery or mastectomy is performed as a treatment. Breast hypertrophy and macromastia are the other names of this condition. It is a simple condition, not much complicated with a proper simple treatment plan. It is not common and rarely occur in young girls during the phase of puberty.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Pictures


Juvenile Gigantomastia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Juvenile Gigantomastia Symptoms


The symptoms of  juvenile gigantomastia are very simple. The common and diagnostic symptom is the enlargement of either side of breast. The abnormal increase in size makes it easier to diagnose. The growth occurs within days. It occurs in girls at the age of puberty and during pregnancy. It does not occur in men. It causes problems in posture. Patient experience pain in the macromastic breast, in shoulders, neck and back. There may be an infection at the site. There may be itching and warmth and redness around breast. Patient feel no sensation at the nipple.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Causes


The exact cause behind this condition is still unknown. The expected causes include the increased sensitivity to female hormones like lactogen and prolactin. Genetics is also a cause. In some cases, juvenile gigantomastia occurs without any reason and the growth is spontaneous. Juvenile gigantomastia shows association with pregnancy and puberty. It may be secondary to some medications like bucillamine, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine and neothetazone. Some of the autoimmune diseases leading to juvenile gigantomastia are chronic arthritis, systemic lupus erythmatosus, psoriasis, hashimotos thyroiditis and myasthenia gravis. All these conditions are the predisposing factors of juvenile gigantomastia.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Treatment


There is not any specific treatment for juvenile gigantomastia. It is treated according to the case. In case of any infection, it is suggested to treat the infection 1st. For these infections and ulcers, antibiotics infused warm dressings and over the counter pain medications are recommended. If it occurs during pregnancy, then there are chances that it may resolve on it's own after delivery of the fetus. If it does not resolve on it's own, then a breast reduction surgery is performed which is known as reduction mammoplasty. During this surgery, the amount of breast tissues is reduced along with dark skin around it.

Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Images, Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy

Bartsocas papas syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive syndrome in which there is severe deformity of face and extremities of body occur. The main characteristic of this condition is webbing of lower extremities. Fetus with bartocas syndrome die within the womb of mother otherwise will die soon after death. It is a congenital disorder. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive manner and abnormal Gene from each parent is required for this condition to occur. The deformity of face and extremities can be described as

Head longer than the usual size in babies. Babies with bartsocas papas syndrome have no hair in head and eyebrows. The eyes are not equal and stand far from each other. Right sided eye is usually small in size like a black colored sloe is sticked half out on flat face.

Babies with bartsocas papas syndrome do not survive because of severity of deformity of body. When there is deformity in the appearance of fetus, there will also problems in the physiological systems of body like problems in vision, breathing, talking and hearing etc. This condition directly leads to death of fetus or baby so there is no treatment plan for this autosomal recessive disease.

Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Images


Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Images, Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy


Bartsocas Papas Syndrome Symptoms


The symptoms of bartsocas papas syndrome are visible. The deformity of face can be easily seen and the symptoms include severe popliteal webbing, a typical flat face with short palpebral fissures, ankyloblepharon, microcephaly (i.e. shorter size of head), presence of filiform bands between the facial clefts and jaws. The nose is hypoplastic nose in bartsocas papas syndrome. Other than this, there may be genital abnormalities, oligosyndactyly and some other ectodermal anomalies like no hair growth on head, eye brows and lashes. There may be impaired growth of nails too. Usually fetus die within the womb but in rare cases the baby die soon after delivery.

Bartsocas Papas Syndrome Causes


It is an autosomal recessive syndrome which is inherited from mother to the fetus. It is inherited via an abnormal Gene from both parents. It is a rare congenital disease and a fatal one too. It does not occur secondary to any disease. It occurs during the development of fetus within the womb of mother. The abnormal appearance makes it easy to diagnose. Although the fetus die within the womb and in rare cases the baby die right after birth. So if mother deliver a baby with bartsocas papas syndrome, he is gonna die soon.

Bartsocas Papas Syndrome Life Expectancy


It is a fatal condition. The chances of life are very low. The abnormal appearance of fetus causes problems in the physiological systems of body like difficulty in breathing, vision, hearing, and other systems of body. These problems leads to the death of fetus within the womb of mother. In rare cases, mother deliver her baby with bartsocas papas syndrome. But the survival chances are very low. Only one in every 50 cases of this condition the baby survive but with a very little deformity.

Mucocele Appendix Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Cancer, Treatment

Mucocele appendix is also known as appendiceal mucocele. It is a condition in which a mucocele occurs on the surface of appendix. It closely resembles acute appendicitis. Mucocele is a cyst which forms on the mucous membrane of appendix. It is a rare disease. The mucocele is a fluid filled swelling which occurs on the mucous membrane. This cyst is formed when there is a mucous plug in mucous membrane. These mucocele on appendix are benign in nature and are not malignant i.e. cancerous. But in some cases it may convert in to malignant cyst and spread to the whole appendix causing serious complications.

Mucocele Appendix Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Cancer, Treatment

Mucocele Appendix


The symptoms of mucocele appendix are visible and can easily be observed. Swelling and inflammation can be seen easily on abdomen and the mass of abdomen becomes palpable. Patient may experience pain in the lower quadrant of abdomen at right side where appendix lies. Other than these localized symptoms, patient may experience weight loss, acute appendicitis, nausea and vomiting. Patient may experience some changes in bowel habits and last but not least there may be unexpected and unexplained anemia. Anemia may prove fatal for patient because of excessive loss of blood.

Mucocele Appendix Causes


Mucocele appendix is a rare condition and may occur due to many reasons. Commonly it occurs as a result of benign and malignant diseases. These diseases causes obstruction of appendix and the mucous secretion accumulate. Other than these it may also occur due to mucosal hyperplasia. Other mucosal diseases which leads to mucocele formation are mucinous cystadenoma or mucinous cystadenoma carcinoma. It may occur due to the combination of obstructive or inflammatory processes. All these causes leads to the formation of mucocele on the mucous layer of appendix and may prove fatal for patient if left untreated.

Mucocele Appendix Treatment


Mucocele appendix or appendiceal mucocele is an aseptic dilation of the appendix which is secondary to the obstruction caused by benign and malignant diseases. There are no clinical symptoms which helps in the diagnosis of mucocele appendix. So the diagnosis is difficult. In case, the mucocele appendix is benign, the surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Appendectomy is the surgical process which is performed to remove the complete appendix. By removing benign mucocele of appendix this condition may be treated successfully without any complication. In case of malignant mucocele, the condition may become severe and cannot be treated with surgery and need radiation or chemotherapy for treatment.

Mucocele Appendix Cancer


Mucocele are swelled sacs which are filled with mucous present in the mucous membrane of appendix. There is a range from benign to malignant mucocele according to which the treatment is selected. If the appendix ruptures the cells will spread inside body and become malignant in nature causing cancer. The spreading cells of appendix continue to secrete gel like substance named mucin. And this mucin is responsible for spreading cancer to other parts of body. In case of malignant mucocele, the treatment becomes difficult and may prove fatal for patient.

Pyoderma Faciale Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pyoderma faciale is a dermatological condition which involves skin surface. It does not occur commonly in people. Usually it occur in young adult women. Pyoderma faciale resembles a lot with rosacea fulminans but these two are different conditions. It closely resembles with acne (severe acne) and rosacea. The features which makes it different from severe acne include


  • It is not only confined to face and can occur on other parts of body too.
  • It does not occur only on oily skin as acne usually occur on oily skin types.
  • Its onset is abrupt.
  • It does not affect males and occur commonly in females.
  • It does not get worse because of comedones.
  • It occurs and persist usually more than a year.

The qualities which makes it different from rosacea fulminans are;

  • It does not cause flushing
  • It has no affect on eyes
  • It usually occur in younger women.


It is a rare condition and involved the cutaneous layer of skin. Basically the presentation of pyoderma faciale resembles a lot with severe acne and rosacea fulminans and this resemblance makes the diagnosis very difficult. The causes of these conditions and treatment strategies are also different for these 3 dermal conditions.

Pyoderma Faciale Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pyoderma Faciale Symptoms


The symptoms of pyoderma faciale are localized and are not systemic. The presentation of pyoderma faciale shows sudden formation of papules on skin surface. Other than papules, there may be pustules and cysts too. The nodules appearing on skin may be painful. These may occur on any part of body not specifically on face. The part of body where these papules occur, the red colored cyanotic centrofacial erythema also occurs. It makes the skin red in color. There may be inflammation of of skin along with erythema. These lesions or pustules may leave scars on skin which will take time to clear completely.

Pyoderma Faciale Causes


The etiological factors are not sure but there are some causes which may lead to sudden onset of pyoderma faciale. Women using oral contraceptive pills and during pregnancy are more prone to pyoderma faciale.  Mostly inflammatory bowel disease also leads to formation of pyoderma faciale. Some rare cases are also reported helicobacter pylori infection, erythema nodosum  and liver and thyroid diseases. Other than these conditions some useful vitamins may also be responsible for causing pyoderma faciale. Pegylated interferon alpha B2 and ribavirin are the causative e agents. Other than these, vitamin B12 and B6 high doses are also responsible for causing pyoderma faciale.

Pyoderma Faciale Treatment


Pyoderma faciale persist more than a year and longer than that. The treatment is selected according to the cause of pyoderma faciale. As it is a skin infection so antibiotics will be used to treat this condition. Oral antibiotics are used usually. Other than antibiotics, steroids are also used for pyoderma faciale. The steroids used should be systemic and isotretinoin is also used. The combination of these medications is used for the complete removal of pyoderma faciale. This combination of drugs if administered for 3 to 6 months, can completely heal this condition.

Hyperchylomicronaemia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hyperchylomicronemia is a condition in which the triglycerides TGs level increases in blood. The triglycerides TGs are the lipid molecules which are obtained from food and are absorbed by stomach. These triglycerides TGs are transferred to some specific sites of body for the energy. It is transferred to the adipose tissues for the storage and later use for energy. When triglycerides TGs level increases in blood, then it is known as hyperchylomicronemia. Increased level of triglycerides TGs decreases the flow of blood and ultimately causes cardiac problems and heart diseases.

It has many types which are based on the type of triglycerides TGs, cause and the presentation of the associated disorders of heart. One of the types of hyperchylomicronemia is type 4 which contains VLDL for the transfer of triglycerides TGs across cell membrane. Like wise the type 1 of hyperchylomicronemia is a genetic disorder in which the level of triglycerides and chylomicron increases in blood. The high level triglycerides TGs and chylomicron causes various complications including pancreatitis. It occurs due to the gene mutation in a specific enzyme named lipoprotein lipase. Mutation in other genes which are responsible for encoding lipoprotein lipase also causes hyperchylomicronemia. It is usually diagnosed in children.

Hyperchylomicronaemia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hyperchylomicronemia Symptoms


If the level of triglycerides TGs in blood is below 1000mg per dl, there will be no symptoms. As various heart diseases are associated with this condition, so symptoms of heart diseases may also occur. Patient may experience symptoms of atherosclerosis i.e. heart attack or angina. But these symptoms may occur after a long time of hyper TGs. Some common symptoms include pancreatitis, mild jaundice, back pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and back pain. All these symptoms appear when TGs are above 1000ml/dl. If the level exceeds and become above 2000ml/dl then patient may experience headache, fatty skin lesions, enlarged liver, shortness of breath and dizziness.

Hyperchylomicronemia Causes


In case of primary hyperchylomicronemia, the cause is genetic and is inherited from parents to their offsprings. In case of secondary hyperchylomicronemia, the causes may be kidney diseases like uremia and nephrotic syndrome, liver diseases, thyroid diseases like hyperthyroidism. Other than these high intake of calories, Diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage disease specifically type 2, immunoglobulin deficiencies and Cushing syndrome may cause hyperchylomicronemia. It may be secondary to some drugs like beta blockers, alcohol, bole acid sequestrants, retinoids, estrogen, thiazide diuretics and corticosteroids. All these drugs are responsible for causing hyperchylomicronemia.

Hyperchylomicronemia Treatment


Hyperchylomicronemia have to be treated in two ways i.e. by lowering the level of triglycerides TGs in blood and by treating the symptoms of the associated diseases. The level of triglycerides TGs can be reduced by taking low fat diet. Dietary modifications will help a lot in treating this condition. As intake of low fat diet will not provide any source of triglycerides in body and ultimately the level of triglycerides TGs in blood will decrease. As it is an inherited disease, so no preventive measures can be followed. The symptoms of the associated diseases can be treated with their respective treatment strategies.

Clitoral Atrophy Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Surgery

Clitoral atrophy is a condition in which the clitoris decreases in size. Atrophy means change in shape or size and clitoris is the part of female sex organ. It is a most sensitive part with a no. Of nerve endings. It contains about 8000 sensory nerve endings. These nerve endings are twice in number than male sex organ i.e. penis. Clitoris is the only part of female sex organ which is designed for pleasure.

Usually when the level of testosterone hormone decreases in case of menopause and during usage of hormonal birth control, the sensitivity of clitoris decreases. Along with this, the size of clitoris and functioning of clitoris also got disturbed. This is known as clitoral atrophy. The tissues of clitoris are spongy erectile in nature which fills with the blood at the time of sexual arousal. Testosterone controls the blood flow in these tissues.

When the level of testosterone decreases the sensitivity of clitoris also decreases. It usually occur at late adulthood. Women taking birth control pills and women after menopause usually experience clitoral atrophy. The symptoms include simply reduction in the pleasure during sexual activity and there is also a specific treatment for this condition.

Clitoral Atrophy Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Surgery

Clitoral Atrophy Symptoms


It is a rare condition and associated with the low level of testosterone in women. The common symptoms associated with this condition are localized. Patient may feel dryness in the vagina. Postcoital bleeding may occur. Due to dryness patient may face vaginal itching and irritation. Along with these, soreness may occur and makes patient uncomfortable. Some other symptoms include vaginal discharge  and dysperiunia. There are also some urinary symptoms associated with it like urge incontinence, increased frequency and urgency. All these symptoms collectively confirms the presence of clitoral atrophy. Patient does not feel pleasure during sexual activity.

Clitoral Atrophy Causes


The clitoral atrophy is associated with the decreased level of testosterone. The testosterone is the hormone responsible for controlling the blood circulation in the nerve endings of clitoris. So when there is decreased level of testosterone in women, the symptoms start appearing. The level of testosterone may decrease in different conditions like in menopause, and in women taking birth control pills. The size of clitoris becomes small and the functionality of clitoris is also impaired. Along with this the sensitivity of clitoris also decreases. The reduction in level of testosterone is the only cause of clitoral atrophy.

Clitoral Atrophy Surgery


Clitoral hood is the covering of clitoris which protects it against external environment. The clitoral hood is reduced in size or the excess tissues are removed to make the clitoris visible. This will help a lot to treat decreased pleasure of clitoris during sexual activity. The surgery performed for that purpose is called hoodectomy or clitoral unhooding. This surgery reduces the excess tissues surrounding clitoris.  Patient may feel discomfort and pain after surgery and the recovery time may vary person to person. Proper care is required after surgery because the chances of complications are high in hoodectomy.

Umbilical Vein Varix Size, Symptoms, Causes, Management, Treatment

Umbilical cord varix is a condition in which an umbilical vein of the umbilical cord become dilated. The word varix defines the abnormal enlargement of the umbilical vein. Placenta joins the fetus with the uterine wall. Placenta is an organ which is reddish brown in color and connects fetus with uterine wall via umbilical cord. Umbilical cord contains two main arteries and one vein which is responsible for blood supply. The function of placenta is to supply nutrients to the fetus from mother. Umbilical vein varix is a rare condition with unknown cause. The risk factors are also unidentified.

Umbilical Vein Varix Causes


Talking about the causes of abnormal dilation of umbilical vein, the exact reason is still unknown. This condition is still under investigation to check the exact cause or relevant cause. It is estimated that the do's and don'ts of mother does not contribute to the occurrence of umbilical vein varix. Other than unknown causes, the risk factors of umbilical vein varix are also unknown. There are no predisposing factors which contribute to the occurrence of umbilical vein varix. Researchers are still trying to find the relevant causes and risk factors of umbilical vein varix.

Umbilical Vein Varix Size, Symptoms, Causes, Management, Treatment

Umbilical Vein Varix Size


The dilation of the umbilical vein is abnormal and it may dilate up to a dangerous level. Usually the size of umbilical vein increases due to an increase in the diameter. The diameter of the umbilical vein increases up to 3mm in the gestation periods (at 15 weeks) and this may further increase to 8mm at term. The size of umbilical vein can be diagnosed with the help of ultrasound technique during Doppler examination. Doppler examination clearly shows the enlarged size of umbilical vein. The symptoms are common like problem in the blood pressure so proper examination is required.

Umbilical Vein Varix Management


The treatment and management of the umbilical vein varix is necessary for the maintenance of health of fetus. The clinical guidelines for the management of umbilical vein varix are not clear. The variables which should be managed are the diameter of varix, problems in the turbulent flow of blood ( the turbulent flow increase or decrease) and the anomalies of fetus. All these variables require management for the good health of fetus and delivery. This is because, most deliveries with umbilical vein varix are associated with thrombotic varix, turbulent flow and multiple malformations.

Umbilical Vein Varix Treatment


There is not any specific treatment for umbilical vein varix. If there are any complications associated with it, then supportive and symptomatic treatment is required to treat the symptoms. In case of fetal distress, an elective delivery is required. A regular, periodic and careful  monitoring is required during pregnancy. If the umbilical vein varix is diagnosed during pregnancy then it may prove fatal for mother and fetus because the pressure of umbilical vein increases. As this condition does not depend on the do's and don'ts of mother during or before pregnancy so it should not be considered.

Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a complication of treatment of various diseases like pleural effusion, atelectasis or pneumothorax. The pathogenesis of re-expansion pulmonary edema. It is a condition in which the lung re expands right after the emptying of liquid or air from the pleural space. It is a pathological condition. Liquid from the pleural space is removed via thoracentesis. It is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. It can occur after chronic lung lobe collapse. It is a rare condition which may occur in 1 to 14 percent of cases. Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a fatal condition and may lead to death.

Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Symptoms


The symptoms of reexpansion pulmonary edema are all related to chest. Patient feels chest discomfort all the time. Paient have to face problem while breathing and experience persistent severe cough. The cough is not dry cough. Because of fluid filled in the pleural space will produce sputum and patient will experience frothy sputum with cough along with dyspnea. The symptoms will start appearing within 24 hours of the onset of disease. In about 64 percent of cases patients start experiencing symptoms of reexpansionpulomonary edema within one to 2 hours of its onset.

Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema

Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Causes


Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a condition which rarely occur. Basically it is a complication of various diseases. it usually occurs after treatment of various pulmonary diseases like atelectasis, pneumothorax and pleural effusion. It is common after the treatment of lung collapse which occurred due to pneumothorax. It is can be proved fatal if left untreated. There are 20 percent cases reported with death. Although it is a self limiting condition but the treatment is supportive. The pathophysiology behind the re-expansion pulmonary edema is still unknown. This condition is still under studies to check the exact reason behind it.

Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Treatment


reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare and self limiting condition. The treatment strategy is supportive which consist of noninvasive and invasive ventilation. Oxygen supplementation is also a treatment option. Along with this supportive treatment strategy, the prevention is also necessary. The treatment is necessary for the patients having problem with respiration i.e. dyspnea. In dyspnea, the artificial oxygen supply will help a lot in breathing properly. physician should follow some preventive measures while treating pulmonary diseases. these preventions will reduce the chances of occurrence of reexpansion pulmonary edema. It may resolve on its own after some days. Or it may take weeks.

Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Prevention


Reexpansion pulmonary edema can be avoided by following some preventive measures during thoracentesis. A low negative pressure i.e. – 20 cm H20 should be used for the purpose of suction during tube thoracostomy. The pleural fluid drainage should be made limited in case patient report discomfort. Some studies revealed that large volumes can be removed from pleural space if the pleural pressure monitored properly. if patient reports about some vague pressure in chest during Thoracentesis, it may indicate a suspicious drop in the intrapleural pressure and in that case, Thoracentesis should be stopped.

Paroxysmal Finger Hematoma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Paroxysmal hand hematoma is a condition in which bruising occurs on hand. The bruising may be sudden. Paroxysmal hand hematoma is also termed as Achenbach syndrome. This hematoma is benign in nature and does not spread to other fingers of hand. It may occur on one finger or on all fingers. It is neither rare nor common condition. Less than 40 cases of paroxysmal hand hematoma have been reported. it is a skin condition described as focal hemorrhage which occurs spontaneously on fingers or palm.

It occurs on the anterior side of hand. Patient experience pain which may be transitory and localized. On the onset of paroxysmal hand hematoma, swelling occurs and the skin turns bluish in color. The symptoms of paroxysmal hand hematoma are localized. At 1st a single nerve is seen which becomes red in color but later the capillaries bursting out from this vein spread redness around and makes it painful. Some people at initial stages, tries to keep their hand above body level. Which makes the blood circulation slow and reduces pain. A surgeon revealed that it has great influence on estrogen. Somewhere it can cause polycystic liver which may prove fatal for patient.

Paroxysmal Finger Hematoma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Paroxysmal Hand Hematoma Symptoms


Talking about the symptoms of paroxysmal hand hematoma, it causes pain on the affected finger. Pain is localized and does not spread on whole hand. The color of the finger turns purplish blue and at the time of onset it turns red in color. The finger or palm becomes swollen. Most of its symptoms resembles inflammation. The paroxysmal hand hematoma occurs usually on the middle and index finger. It occurs on the inner or palmer side of hand. Other symptoms may involve its effects on the production of estrogen. Estrogen leads to polycystic liver which is fatal for patient.

Paroxysmal Hand Hematoma Causes


Paroxysmal hand hematoma is the condition which is spontaneous and there is not any proper reason behind it. It may occurs in response to any trauma. Any small lesion which involves the nerves of hand contribute towards the development of paroxysmal hand hematoma. The involvement of nerves leads to the redness and pain in hand. There is not any other reason behind its occurrence. It is benign in nature and does not spread from finger to finger. The pain and symptoms of paroxysmal are localized which makes the treatment easy for patient.

Paroxysmal Hand Hematoma Treatment


The treatment of paroxysmal hand hematoma, it is a self-limiting condition which may resolve on its own. Its etiological factors are still unknown. It occurs on its own suddenly and resolves on its own after some time. The paroxysmal hand hematoma if occurs due to any kind of minor trauma or lesion then topical antibiotics may be used to control infection. Redness will last no longer. After a few days of its onset, it start recovering itself. 1st of all the pain intensity and swelling reduces. Pain killers are prescribed to reduce the intensity of pain.

Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a condition of gums in which the gums get swollen. It is benign in nature. It most commonly occur in young adults and teenagers. The periodontal ligaments are involved in the formation of this peripheral ossifying fibroma. It is classified in the two forms i.e. either as a benign neoplasm or as reactive hyperplasia. There is a great confusion in the terminology defining peripheral ossifying fibroma. Sometimes it is mixed up with peripheral odontogenic fibroma but it is another condition.

There is another term used to define peripheral ossifying fibroma which is peripheral cemento ossifying fibroma. Peripheral cemento ossifying fibroma is different from Central cemento ossifying fibroma as it is the tumor of the bone. The clinical presentation of peripheral ossifying fibroma resembles a lot to the commonly occurring lesions in mouth. So it's diagnosis is a bit difficult. Skin biopsy and pathological examination confirms it's presence. The pathological reports shows the presence of cement, bone and calcium deposits in the connective tissue of cells. The underlying jaw bone is rarely involved and rarely show in x-ray reports. It is a common condition which may occur to anyone there is not any gander preference.

Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma Symptoms


It is an oral cavity pathological condition in which the gums become swollen. It usually occurs on the upper jaw line in between front teeth. Peripheral ossifying fibroma may be pink or red in color. The surface of fibroma may be smooth or irregular pebbled one. The lessons may be small or very large in size. It may be ulcerative or not. Commonly the peripheral ossifying fibroma is red in color and is ulcerative. The lump of fibroma grown outward and is less than 2 cm. It is slow growing and may take months or even years to be visible enough for treatment.


Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma Causes


The actual cause behind the development of peripheral ossifying fibroma is unknown. But there are some factors which contribute to it's development. These factors include hormonal disturbance. As it commonly affects women as compared to men, so hormonal disturbance may trigger it's development. Any kind of trauma is also a cause. The irritation on the gums due to prosthesis, accumulation of plaque and dental restoration also leads to the development of peripheral ossifying fibroma. Calculus formation right under the gums is also the contributing factor towards it's development.

Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma Treatment


Before starting treatment of peripheral ossifying fibroma, the diagnosis is an important part. For diagnosis, the excised part of fibroma is sent for examination. Teeth are rarely extracted. In addition to this, the predisposing factors like plaque and calculus formation should be treated. Dental prosthesis should also be treated because it leads to irritation and ultimately forms peripheral ossifying fibroma. The occurrence rate of this fibroma is 20 percent and it may re-occurrence within the 12 months of excision. In case of no surgery, the lesions may become larger in size and makes the condition worse.

Angioleiomyoma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Angioleiomyoma is also known as vascular leiomyoma and angiomyoma. It is a pathological condition which is defined as benign tumor which occurs just below the skin. The smooth muscles of blood vessels are involved. Thick walled vascular channels confirm the presence of angioleiomyoma. These benign tumors are solitary in nature and are slow growing. Pain is associated with this tumor and it is fairly common in people. Lower limbs are mostly affected. Other than limbs, head and trunk are involved. Women with age near to 30 are commonly affected. The tumor is benign in nature and does not spread.

Women are more prone to this disease than men. The maximum age mentioned in range is 50 years. In men, usually head and trunk region are involved in angioleiomyoma. There are no risk factors associated with this pathological condition. The size of the tumor is small and that’s why it can be easily diagnosed. There are some diagnostic tests which are performed to confirm its presence. Biopsy is the most accurate diagnostic test which also defines the outer boundary of these tumor. The diagnosis of this tumor is easy because of its benign nature and small size. It is a common disease.

Angioleiomyoma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Angioleiomyoma Symptoms


The symptoms of angioleiomyoma occur according to the site involved. It is a slow growing tumor which is solitary in nature. This benign tumor is small in size and occurs just below the surface of skin and deep inside the body tissues. This benign tumor is painful and are visible after many years of its growth. There are some factors which increases the pain. These factors include temperature, pregnancy, pressure and others. The nerve fibers involved in the tumor causes pain. It commonly occurs on lower limbs i.e. legs and other sites involved are body, trunk, hands, head and sometimes mouth and tongue.

Angioleiomyoma Causes


The exact reason behind the occurrence of angioleiomyoma is unknown but it is considered that it occurs spontaneously. It is a common tumor which may affect women of age ranging 30 to 50 years. There may be some reasons like unhygienic conditions. As it is a skin disease, so any irritant may cause angioleiomyoma. Due to any lesion on the skin, angioleiomyoma tumor may occur. Due to lesion, the nerves may get exposed to environment and then the smooth muscles of these nerves may get angioleiomyoma. These may be the only etiological factors of angioleiomyoma.

Angioleiomyoma Treatment


As there are no visible symptoms associated with angioleiomyoma, so non operative measures are recommended to adopt. Pain is the main symptom, so pain is treated via taking pain killers. Regular checkups are required. As these tumor are small in size and benign in nature so surgical removal is the best treatment option. But post-surgical care is a very important factor which helps a lot in complete removal of angioleiomyoma. The surgical excision should remove all of the tumor otherwise it may reoccur. However The re-occurrence rate is low but follow ups are necessary.