Mucoperiosteal Flap Types, Procedure, Design, Elevation

Mucoperiosteal flap is a membrane type covering or flap which consist of skin specially involving subcutaneous tissue. It also consist of a pedicle  which is made up of nutrient vessel. Mucoperiosteal flap is defined as a separate section of oral mucosal line, gingiva and underlying periosteum helping in periodontal surgery. It is also of great help in tooth extraction technique. The formation of mucoperiosteal flap is considered necessary or essential in case if minor oral surgeries. Some of the minor oral surgeries include enucleation of cystic lesions, impacted teeth and apicectomy.

During oral surgeries, it is the basic principle to make everything in oral cavity visible. This is so because, it avoids possible complications with the adjacent tissues or organs. This flap is designed for the purpose of good surgical exposure. When the incision of flap is planned, the destruction of normal epithelial lining attached to it should be avoided. There are various techniques designed but most of them are forgotten. Some if the techniques are useful in case if patients facing unusual complications. So it is concluded that mucoperiosteal flap formation is necessary during minor oral surgeries. It makes the surgery easier and more convenient for both patient and surgeon.

Mucoperiosteal Flap Types, Procedure, Design, Elevation

Mucoperiosteal Flap Procedure


Mucoperiosteal flap can be created with the help of simpler tools. The site where surgery is required , a small incision is made which should be at least 0.5 to 1mm away from gingival line. Now the flap is elevated or removed from the site. Now the inner structure is clear and visible to the surgeon. The incision made should be circular. The granulation tissues are removed. After completing surgery, the flap is placed again to its original position and fix it permanently. This is a simple procedure but it is also the most helpful one.

Mucoperiosteal Flap Design & Types


On the basis of design of mucoperiosteal flap, it is divided in to it's types. Its types are

  • Envelop /sulcular flap It is edentulous and it is created at the crest of the ridge and for the removal of mandibular torus.
  • Tooth anterior and tooth posterior. According to the site.
  • Pedicle Flap. It mobilizes from one area to another with a filling of soft tissue in defect. The oroantral communications are closed.
  • Semilunar Incision. It approach the root apex. It is useful for Peri epical surgery. It avoids trauma to the papilae and gingival margin.


Mucoperiosteal Flap Elevation


The elevation of mucoperiosteal flap is considered important in case of movement if teeth. When the heavy full thickness mucoperiosteal flap is elevated, it ultimately increases the risk of increased movement of teeth. The movement of teeth may increases up to 24 to 31 percent. Due to elevation of mucoperiosteal flap, the bone volume fraction also decreases. The density of mandibular bone in the surgical area also decreases. This allows the acceleration of tooth movement. So to avoid these complications, a thin mucoperiosteal flap should be elevated to have a clear view for the surgery. And proper care is required for that purpose.

Fascioplasty Definition, Procedure, Complications, Indications

Fascioplasty as the name indicates is the surgical procedure in which the fascia is surgically improved. Fascioplasty depends upon the location of fascia in body. Basically fascia is the sheet of connective tissues i.e. collagen. It is present just beneath the skin and it's main function is to provide stabilization and attachment. It's main function is to separate vital organs from muscles. Fascia has three main layers I.e. superficial fascia, deep fascia and visceral or parietal fascia. It is also classified on the basis of anatomical and functional location. Fascioplasty is like plastic surgery and moulding or shaping of skin.

There is a term fasciotomy which is different from fascioplasty. In fasciotomy small cuts or incisions are made on skin to release pressure And relief tension but fascioplasty is the complete moulding of skin. Fascioplasty can be performed for any part of body. Fascia is located in between the layers of muscles and around muscles. And there Are some techniques which are used to repair muscles. One of which is myoplasty. Myoplasty is the surgical procedure to mould and repair muscles surgically. Fascioplasty is performed only in case of burnt skin or any other severe skin disease which cannot be repaired with the help of medications.

Fascioplasty Definition, Procedure, Complications, Indications

Fascioplasty Procedure


Fascioplasty is performed to improve the fascia of skin. Fascia is an important part of skin which has a major function of differentiating organs from muscles. In fascioplasty, the desired region is sprayed with local anesthesia. Then the damaged or burnt skin is removed with the help of surgical instruments. It should not be removed with the hands directly. For the removal of damaged fascia, incision is made. Incision or small cut make the removal easier. Then the affected site is replaced with an artificial fascia which looks natural.

Fascioplasty Contraindications


Fascioplasty is contraindicated in a condition named arthrolysis of the elbow. In this condition, fascioplasty would be of no help. Other than this, in reconstruction of the collateral ligaments, fascioplasty cannot be performed. Fascioplasty is a simple surgical procedure and is only performed when medications are of no use anymore. Fascioplasty is performed in about every severe situation of skin and muscles except the above mentioned two conditions. Fascioplasty is contraindicated in case of cancerous condition. Because fascioplasty in skin cancer is not possible and cancerous cells may spread. The cells become malignant and then become un-treatable for patient.

Fascioplasty Indications


Fascioplasty is the surgical moulding or repair of damaged fascia. It is the plastic surgery of skin and muscles which may get burn or undergo severe injury. Muscles or fascia which got damage during an accident also require fascioplasty. Fascioplasty is the last option for fascia recovery. Medications are first tried for the purpose of recovery. Fascioplasty is performed to change the structure of the muscles. As main functions of fascia is to separate organs from muscles, that's why surgery is important. Fascioplasty can also be performed after delivery of a baby, specially after C section delivery.

Waiter's Tip Deformity Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Waiter's tip deformity is another name of Erb's palsy or Erb duchenne palsy. It is the paralysis of arm due to the injury in upper group of nerves of shoulder. The veins of the upper trunk i.e. C5 - C6 nerves got severe. These nerves collectively forms the brachial plexus which consist of ventral Rami of spinal nerves i.e. C5 - C8 and thoracic nerve i.e. T1. The injuries of above mentioned nerves may arise from shoulder dystocia during difficult baby birth. In Erb duchenne palsy, paralysis may resolve on it's own after a few months of period.

Sometimes it needs a rehabilitation therapy or surgery (according to the severity of Erb duchenne palsy). Waiter's tip deformity may be partial or complete. Whenever a single nerve got damage, the damage starts from bruising to tearing. The most common nerve involved in waiter's tip is C5. This condition is called as Erb duchenne palsy because the junction of C5 and C6 roots is known as Erb's point. Erb duchenne palsy is also presented as a lower motor neuron syndrome which is mainly associated with disturbances in sensibility and vegetative phenomenon. Musculoskeletal nerves, suprascapular nerves and the axillary nerve are mainly involved in waiter's tip.

Waiter's Tip Deformity Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Waiter's Tip Symptoms


The main symptom of waiter's tip is pain in upper region of shoulder.  Basically waiter's tip is the main symptom of Erb duchenne palsy. Waiter's tip is the loss of lateral rotators of shoulder, hand extensor muscles, flexors and arm. The main symptoms include hanging of arm by the side and is medially rotated. The wrist is flexed and forearm is extended and pronated. Patient can't feel any sensation in the lateral aspect of forearm. The power of flexion at elbow got lost and patient cannot move his arm upward from side ways.

Waiter's Tip Causes


Basically waiter's tip is the main symptom of Erb duchenne palsy, so the causes of Erb duchenne palsy are considered the causes for waiter's tip. Dystocia is considered the most common cause of waiter's tip. Dystocia is the difficult or abnormal child birth or labor. It can be described with an example during labor, when the head and neck of infant is pulled towards side , at the same time, the shoulders pass through birth canal. It can also occur due to excessive pulling of shoulders during delivery of fetus with head first out.

Waiter's Tip Treatment


If it occurs during child birth, then it can resolve on it's own after a time if few months. But those babies who does not recover on their own may require special intervention. Paediatric or neonatal surgery is performed for the repair of avulsion fracture. Sometimes when the lesions heal with the passage of time, the function of shoulder returns. Physiotherapy is an important treatment strategy which helps a lot in regaining proper functioning of shoulder. The range of motion of shoulder in children may receiver within one year of their birth. It it took more than 1 year, then surgery becomes necessary.

Balanced Anesthesia Definition, Components, Technique, Protocol

Balanced anesthesia is the combination of drugs used to depress central nervous system. The combination of these drugs enhance the positive aspects of all drugs. When all the neuro depressant drugs combined it gives more efficient result and along with this, the disadvantages of these drugs reduces to nothing. The drugs used are combined in a minute quantity to control the dosage. The smaller doses of more than one drug with same result is considered more effective and safer as compared to larger dose of a single drug. The drugs which are combined may be of different specific effects like amnesia, unconsciousness, analgesia and muscle relaxation.

Basically balanced anesthesia consist of preoperative medications like cholinergic drugs. Cholinergic drugs are used to decrease the secretions of body. These drugs helps a lot in intubation and control bradycardia which is associated with neural depression. Other than cholinergic drugs, sedative and hypnotics are also used to relax patient. Sedatives also facilitate amnesia. Other than these anti emetics and antihistamines are used. There is a fixed proportion of doses of these drugs, which should not be changed, as changing this dosage proportion may change the effectiveness of balanced anesthesia.

Balanced Anesthesia Definition, Components, Technique, Protocol

Balanced Anesthesia Components


The basic components of balanced anesthesia include amnesia, unconsciousness and analgesia. Amnesia is the loss of memory and pain or distress. Analgesia is the pain relief. Other than these, muscle relaxation, reversibility and diminished motor response towards noxious stimuli are also the basic components if balanced anesthesia. These are the main classes of drugs and any drug of these class can be used in proportion to other drugs. The quantity of these drugs should be managed according to the condition of patient. The effectiveness of these drugs enhance when combined together with a visible reduction in disadvantages.

Balanced Anesthesia Technique


Balanced anesthesia is injected to patients in a same way as general anesthesia is injected. The technique used is named as rapid sequence induction. Basically fantanyl is used as an anesthetic in balanced anesthesia. Patient is preoxygenated for almost 1 to 3 minutes. The intravenous injection should not be followed by mask ventilation. The potential risk associated with rapid sequence induction is the loss of airway. Preventilation is necessary for oxygen richness in patient. As this will reduce the risks of rapid sequence induction. Close monitoring is required for the introduction of balanced anesthesia in patient.

Balanced Anesthesia Protocol


Balanced anesthesia is basically a name given to drug protocols designed to facilitate patient in every phase of anesthesia. It is first tested in small animals. These phases start from preoperative analgesia and sedation and pass through surgical anesthesia up to recovery. Small doses of drugs are used to avoid the over dependence of one drug used for anesthetic purpose. As the beneficial aspects increases while combining these drugs. It also reduces the side effects of drugs along with the disadvantages of these drugs. It is found convenient and more effective as compare to single drug used in anesthesia.

Prostatolith Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Prostatolith is a condition in which concrete is formed in the prostate gland. This concretion may consist of calcium carbonate and phosphate. Corpora amylacea is the synonym of prostatolith. Basically corpora amylacea is the concretion. This concretion may result from accumulation of degenerative cell of body or accumulation of thickened secretions. The chances of calcretion are higher with the passage of age. There are higher chances of perfusion in case of neurodegerative diseases. Prostate gland is associated with male reproductive system. It is responsible for production of prostate fluid in men which is the main component of semen. Mostly middle aged men are affected.

Due to accumulation of concrete in the prostate gland, the muscles of prostate gland does not work properly. it sticks to the sides and passes on to the urethra and blocks it. These concretions may prove harmful for the reproductive system of patient. It may occur due to many reasons and leads to various complications in patient. Prostatic hyperplasia is the biggest complication of prostatolith. It is not a common condition. Patients with prostatolith may suffer from sexual difficulties like erectile dysfunction, infertility and many more. Age is the biggest factor affecting occurrence of prostatolith.

Prostatolith Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Prostatolith Symptoms


Prostatolith is a rare condition associated with reproductive system of men. So, all the symptoms are associated with sexual activity of patient. There may be unusual discharge from urethra. Sometimes Urethra becomes inflamed. Other main symptoms include dribbling, disturbance in frequency of urination. Patient feels pain during urination. There may be burning sensation in the the bladder while urination. Patient face difficulty in starting urination.

Prostatolith Causes


Talking about the causes of deposition of concrete in prostate gland, there are various reasons reported. The concrete consists of calcium carbonate and phosphate. This deposition of concrete may occur due to degenerative cells and deposition of thickened secretions. Age is another factor contributing towards its occurrence. The excess calcium carbonate and phosphate from body secretions start accumulating in the prostate gland and leads to heavy deposition of concrete. This concrete leads to further complications in body. Prostatolith is a rare condition but prove dangerous for patient. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases are at higher risk to prostatolith occurrence.

Prostatolith Treatment


prostatolith leads to prostatic hyperplasia and this condition needs treatment. There are some medications which are used to relax the muscles of prostate gland. The walls of prostate gland have deposits of concrete on them which makes the path of urethra narrow and cause difficulty in passing urine through urethra. Alpha blockers are used to relax muscles of prostate gland. These medications cant treat prostatolith but can control the symptoms generating through it. treatment of prostatolith is important. Some medications are prescribed to relief pain and for the thinning of thick secretions. As these secretions are responsible for causing concretion in prostate gland.

Nasophilia Meaning, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Nasophilia is defined as partialism for the nose. Nose partialism and nose fetishism are the other names of nasophilia. It is a condition in which patient experience sexual arousal to anything via smelling it. Nose plays a vital role in sexual arousal to some specific scents, that's why it is termed as nasophilia. There may be variation in the physical appearance of object. Person may feel him or herself in love with that attractive thing and wants to be in contact with this. He wants to physically interact with that thing attracting him. The patient wish or desires to penetrate his nostrils in the intended object.

Other than this, patient may desire to see some different and more attractive things at the place of nose like the nose of Pinocchio. Patient dream about seeing a different nose instead of the original one i.e. replaced with a piggy nose. This is associated with role play in which props are used to change the shape of nose, with the writing artwork, transformation fiction and morphing i.e. some modified pictures of people. All these things are found to be attractive to the patient with nasophilia.

Nasophilia Meaning, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Nasophilia Symptoms


This is kind of attraction to the nose of any other person. Basically the symptoms are associated with sexual arousal of patient. Person with nasophilia wants to touch his partner's nose and lick it and sometimes bite it. This makes them relax and they enjoy it a lot. Sometimes person with nasophilia wants to kiss and suck his partner's nose. Basically it is an initial step towards the sexual arousal and ends up with sexual intercourse. It is specified with the nose and people with nasophilia spends more time playing with nose of their partner.

Nasophilia Causes


There is not any specific cause behind nasophilia. Nasophilia is considered the initial attraction towards sexual activity. People with nasophilia got attracted to the different shapes and sizes of nose of people. They always focus on the nose of other people. People with some different nose like bigger nose bridge or nostrils, are found attractive to these patients with nasophilia. They wants to touch and kiss and lick and suck their nose. Patient feels sexually aroused even when they are thinking of touching their partner's nose. Sometimes nasophilia occurs due to strong sense of smell.

Nasophilia Treatment


There are various treatment strategies which can be used according to the severity and condition of patients. These treatment strategies include cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoanalysis, hypnosis and drug therapy. Treatment is not conducted unless the condition becomes worse. The psychoanalysis treatment include orgasmic reconditioning, psychotherapy, individual expressive supportive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Other than this, group therapy is conducted in which there are more than 12 people who are trained about sexual activity. Drug therapy include some main CNS acting drugs. Phenothiazine and some anti depressants are used. Anti depressants are anti androgens and long acting gonadotropin hormone i.e. medical castration.

Greer's goo Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Recipe

Greer's goo is a topical formulation which is used for rash. It consist of more than two ingredients which acts on rash to relief itching and redness. It is specially designed to treat a condition named intertrigo. It acts as a barrier cream. Intertrigo is a skin condition commonly named as diaper rash in babies. It is composed of three main components I.e. zinc oxide paste, Nystatin powder and hydrocortisone powder. There is a specific quantity of every ingredient used in it's composition. Talking about quantities, 4 million units of Nystatin powder is used, only 4 ounces of zinc oxide paste and 1.2 grams of hydrocortisone powder.

The mixture of these three ingredients acts as a moisture lock barrier on skin. It locks the moisture in skin. A thick coating of this cream is applied on the affected site i.e. rash. Skin should be clean and this mixture is applied directly in skin. Skin rash may occur at various parts of body. Mostly rash occur at inner side of thighs, under breast, under the arms and buttocks. Rash usually occur in winter because the skin becomes dry due to dehydration. People drink less water in winter and this makes the skin dry.

Greer's goo Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Recipe

Greer's Goo Uses


Greer's goo is a special recipe of three main ingredients which is designed for a condition named intertrigo. Intertrigo is a name used for diaper rash in babies. It is specially designed for this condition. It is used as a moisture barrier. It locks the moisture in skin and relief the symptoms of rash. In adults, it may occur due to dry skin and continuous rubbing of fabric with skin. It usually occur in winter's because of dry skin. It may also used as a moisturizer on all body parts of skin. It also works as an emolient on the surface of skin.

Greer's Goo Side Effects


Greer's goo ointment should be used in a limit and for limited time. It it is applied in a greater quantity for longer period of time, then it may lead to some serious side effects. The common side effects include irritation on skin, patient may feel burning sensation. Hair growth may increase. Due to over usage of this cream, skin dryness may occur. The color of skin may lighten where this cream is applied. There may be stretch marks due to dryness and scaling of skin.

Greer's Goo Recipe


Greer's goo is the combination of three main ingredients. These ingredients include Nystatin powder, hydrocortisone powder and zinc oxide paste. Talking about the quantities of these ingredients, Nystatin powder is used four million units which is the major component. 1.2g of hydrocortisone powder is used and 4 ounces of zinc chloride paste is used. This is the basic recipe of Greer's goo. Apart from this, it can be prepared at home with the help of an anti fungal cream. Equal parts of hydrocortisone cream and athlete's foot cream is used along with heavy quantity of diaper rash cream.

Scapulalgia Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Scapulalgia is the term used to describe pain in the shoulder. As the name indicated this condition, scapula is the bone in shoulder also known as shoulder blade. When there is pain in this bone, this condition is termed as scapulalgia. Scapulalgia is not a rare condition, patient may suffer from scapulalgia due to any external reason or cause. It is related to the bone of shoulder, so the causes are related to shoulder blades. It may also occur due to bone injury. Any hard hit or accident of shoulder bone may lead to scapulalgia.

Apparently pain is the main symptom associated with scapulalgia but some other symptoms may include improper movement of shoulder and arm. Arm may not move in all positions. Sometimes the pain becomes unbearable. Basically scapula is the main bone which connects clavicle i.e. collar bone to the humerous which is upper arm bone. So any kind of injury to scapula may make patient suffer a lot. Sometimes the arm becomes completely immobilized. This immobilization leads to various problems. To cover this shoulder pain, there are different treatment plans proposed. But physiotherapy is always necessary in case of any bone problem in any part of body.

Scapulalgia Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Scapulalgia Causes


There are various causes which may lead to the pain in shoulder. The most common one is any hard external hit or accident of shoulder bone. It may immediately delocalize the bone and cause severe pain. Other main causes may include some medical conditions which ultimately leads to scapulalgia. Chronic fatigue syndrome is another reason for scapulalgia. As patients with this syndrome have greater chances of scapulalgia. Other causes include polymyalgia rheumatica, fibromyalgia, cervical cholecystitis, cervical herniated disc, cervical spondolysis, scapula fracture, tricho, occulo, dermo vertebral syndrome, viral pleurisy and pleurisy. All these causes directly or indirectly leads to scapulalgia.

Scapulalgia Symptoms


Scapulalgia as the term defined, pain in the shoulder. This pain is mainly associated with the scapula bone in shoulder. This pain and the possible causes of scapulalgia may lead to unbalanced posture of body, delocalized shoulder due to injury or accident. Immobilization of arm because scapula is directly attached to the upper arm bone i.e. humerous. Patient can't move his arm in all directions. Because of extreme pain, patient sometimes feel nausea and some GIT issues. Sometimes it effects collar bone too and make it difficult for patient to move his neck And look around freely.

Scapulalgia Treatment


Scapulalgia involves scapula bone and the treatment is assigned according to the underlying cause behind it. Some pain killers are prescribed to treat pain. These pain killers may be in both topical and oral dosage form. According to the underlying cause, patient may sometimes require surgical correction if scapula. In addition to the medical therapy, physical therapy is also necessary. As physical therapy helps a lot in maintaining the movement of shoulder and makes the bones stronger. So patient should continue with both physical and medical therapy. Combination of these two therapies with speed up the recovery time.

Colpectomy Meaning, Procedure, Complications, Recovery, Sucess rate

Vaginectomy is another name of colpectomy. Colpectomy is the surgical procedure which is performed to remove a part or whole vagina. Basically it is specified as a treatment for vaginal cancer. Vaginectomy is also performed to change the gender of a person by female to male sex reassignment surgery. It is performed to completely remove vagina and replace it with a penis to change the gender of a person. Radical vaginectomy is the term used for the complete removal of vagina. Other than this, partial vaginectomy is the term used for the removal of one part of vagina (this part may be upper or lower).

Colpectomy Procedure


Colpectomy is of two main types i.e. radical and partial vaginectomy. In radical vaginectomy, the whole vagina is removed. It is selected in case of pelvic malignant cancer. Pelvic malignant cancer involves or encroaches the vagina. It is indicated in special and rare cases. Partial vaginectomy is performed to remove the malignant part of the vagina. In this procedure, the epithelial lining is removed from the vaginal part without disturbing the adjacent tissues of paracolpium. It is not a simple procedure and a specialist is requires for this surgery. As disturbing the adjacent cells during surgery may spread the cancer.

Colpectomy Meaning, Procedure, Complications, Recovery, Sucess rate

Colpectomy Complications


Colpectomy is not a simple surgery and may cause various complications in patient. As it is specific for vaginal cancer so after surgery, patient may experience anorectal tumor. Mostly people experience surgical complications. These complications mainly include the perineal wound. In case of vaginal radical vaginectomy, there may be perineal incision which can complicate the surgery. Another surgical complication include spreading of cancer to the surrounding area. As spreading of cancer may prove fatal for patient and leads to death. After radical vaginectomy, sexual parts may not work properly and become sensitive.

Colpectomy Recovery


Colpectomy is the cancer treatment which requires special attention. On the basis of data collected about patients who had colpectomy shows that the recovery time is variable according to the tolerance of patient. It also depends upon the type of treatment i.e. radical or partial vaginectomy. Some patients reported slight pain in the pelvic region while some reported unbearable pain. The average recovery time recorded is around 6 months. These six months require complete bed rest and there are some activity restrictions which should be followed. But some of the patients recover within 2 months of surgery.

Colpectomy Success Rate


Colpectomy is a successful surgical procedure which has more than 50 percent success rate. Patients with colpectomy have to be careful about activity restrictions. Almost 80 percent of patients recover successfully from colpectomy whether it is radical vaginectomy or partial vaginectomy. Talking about the reoccurrence rate of colpectomy, there are 20 percent chances of re-occurrence of malignant cancer in vagina. Special care is required to beat the re-occurrence of malignant cancer. If it reoccurs after partial vaginectomy, then 2nd time there are chances that radical vaginectomy may be performed because of spreading of cancer in the whole vagina.

Aquathermia Pad Uses, Time, Directions, Safety

Aquathermia pad is a plastic or rubber pad which contains small channels. As the name indicates, it contains water in it. This water flows through the small channels of pad. This pad may either used as heating pad or cooling pad. If the patient needs to take heating pad on any site of body, then hot water is added in the aquathermia pad, and then it is placed on the site. Likewise in case of cool pad, cold water is added to aquathermia pad, and place it on the site. An electrical control unit is also attached along with a motor.

Aquathermia Pad Uses


Aquathermia pad is used as a heating pad for various purposes. Distilled water is used to fill the aquathermia pad. Then this water is heated with the help of motor and electrical control system attached to it. This hot water aquathermia pad is placed on the site. The main conditions for which it is widely used are swelling, redness, muscle pull, muscle sprain and inflammation. Other than these conditions, aquathermia pad is used to relief edema. Other than this, this pad is widely used to relax stiff muscles and contracted muscles of body.

Aquathermia Pad Uses, Time, Directions, Safety

Aquathermia Pad Time


Aquathermia pad is used as a heating pad for various parts of body. This heating pad is used on the upper side of body because it cannot be placed at the under side of body part. There is a specific time period, beyond which blood vessels will start shrinking leading to increased blood pressure. Hot aquathermia pad is applied for 20 to 40 minutes and then it should be removed to avoid vasoconstriction. Human body cannot tolerate this heating aquathermia pad for more than 40 minutes, it it exceeds 40 minutes, patient will start feeling burning sensation and the blood vessels will constrict leading to further complications.

Aquathermia Pad Directions


Aquathermia pad is used for the purpose of heating. It consist of two main nozels through which distilled water is added to this aquathermia pad. Then the motor is generated and the electrical control system heat up the water. This hot water flows through the channels of aquathermia pad. These channels when come in contact with skin and vessels, it transfer heat. The heating pad is placed on the top surface of body part. It cannot be placed under the surface of body as heat does not find way to eliminate and there are higher chances of burning skin.

Aquathermia Pad Safety


Talking about the safety of aquathermia pad, the temperature should be maintained for the long term application. Increased temperature of aquathermia pad may burn the skin and the blood vessels may constrict. Due to vasoconstriction, blood pressure may raise. So there is a specific temperature which should be maintained. The ideal temperature set for adults is 45°C. A thin cloth or pillow case should be placed between hot aquathermia pad and skin, as it prevents the direct heat action on skin. Hot aquathermia pad should not be placed for more than 40 minutes. 20 to 40 minutes is the ideal time for application.

Rolling Veins in Arms & Hands Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

When a vein is not anchored properly during blood collection, it rolls or slips sideways then it is termed as rolling vein. It may occur in any patient. This rolling of veins can be prevented by keeping our body well hydrated. It only occurs during IV administration of medication or taking blood samples for test. So there are some techniques, by using them, the rolling veins can be avoided. In case of rolling veins, blood cannot be draw properly from body. Mostly nurses face problem while taking samples. There is another condition named blown veins, it is a bit different condition from rolling veins.

Rolling Veins in Arms and Hands


Mostly rolling veins are seen in arms and hands. As the main region used for taking blood sample, is the arm and hands. As arms and hands are the most feasible site for the blood sampling. There is a network of veins in arms and hand which is closely packed. In that case, finding the exact vein for blood sampling is difficult. There are higher chances of rolling vein and blown vein. In-fact for rolling veins, arms and hands are the most common site. Other than these, rolling vein may occur at thigh while blood sampling.

Rolling Veins in Arms & Hands Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Rolling Veins Symptoms


Talking about the symptoms of rolling veins, pain is the most common one reported till now. Other symptoms which are associated with it include itching and burning of veins. Patient may experience thrombing and cramping in thighs and around the veins. To cover up these local symptoms, some exercises will help. These exercises include lifting up of legs and wearing compensation stockings. Some other prevention are also used to ease the pain and other symptoms. All These above mentioned symptoms are localized and does not spread to the whole body.

Rolling Veins Causes


There may be very minor causes behind it. These causes may include inappropriate technique to inject syringe in vein. The vein is not properly  anchored by nurse. People who are not well hydrated have greater chances of rolling vein. Nurses who are under training, mostly face this rolling veins during injecting syringe in vein. It usually occur on arms and hands and thighs where is the rich supply of blood in veins. Finding the right vein is a difficult task and holding it at a place and does not allow it to slip is also a very difficult task.

Rolling Veins Treatment


There are some tricks which can be followed to avoid rolling veins. A thick torniquet should be used by professionals to hold the veins at one place. Patient's arm should be placed on a flat surface right in front of him. Pressure should be applied firmly on the veins in order to make the vein anchored. Then needle should be inserted in anchored vein. Use of winged infusion set is designed to avoid rolling veins while taking blood sample. This special set has wings on both sides which helps a lot in holding the vein at one place and the sampling becomes easy.

Vestibuloplasty Definition, Techniques, Procedure, Indications

Vestibuloplasty is a surgical procedure which is performed in oral cavity. Basically it is a surgical modification which is performed to enhance the gingival mucous membrane. Other than this, it is also performed for rearrangement of extensive tissue and to enhance bone density. During vestibuloplasty, the height and width of the gum is enhanced. The extent of surgery varies according to the bone loss incurred. The surface area is also a factor upon which the extent of surgery depends. The vestibular extension area may extend anywhere i.e. from outside the gums to the inner side of cheeks.

People who wear dentures with the time will notice that the space is increasing between teeth and dentures. And these dentures then requires realignment or refitting of new dentures. Whether there is one tooth missing, or the whole mouth is empty the gums and bone are gonna deteriorate. When every single tooth is lost, then the bone tissue got absorb by the body causing shrinkage. The coverings and membranes covering the tooth also diminishes. Vestibuloplasty is performed to recover all these above mentioned losses. It is a simple process and can be performed easily with lesser complications. It is indicated for some specific conditions of mouth.

Vestibuloplasty Definition, Techniques, Procedure, Indications

Vestibuloplasty Technique


The technique of vestibuloplasty is a simple technique in which a small incision is made on the midline through mucous. This is performed under local anesthesia. It extend from mucogingival junction in to the lip. By blunt spreading, the mucosa is separated. The submucosa is spreaded to right and left side. Like this, a tunnel is formed between mucosa and submucosa. It passes through mucogingival junction to the lip and cheeks. Additional vertical incisions can be made on molars and premolars. These vertical incisions are made for the purpose of dissection of posterior regions.

Vestibuloplasty Procedure


Vestibuloplasty is a surgical procedure which is performed to enhance the oral cavity. Vestibuloplasty is performed to smooth out the jaw bone. The alveolar ridge is restored via vestibuloplasty. Vestibuloplasty procedure is performed to readjust the height of alveolar ridge. This is done by lowering the muscles and make them attach to buccal, labial and lingual jaw aspect. The procedure is performed according to the type of vestibuloplasty. It is performed under the effect of local anesthesia and an incision is made to make a way to the inner layers which are deeper than mucosal and submucosal layer.

Vestibuloplasty Indications


Vestibuloplasty is an oral surgeon procedure which is performed for various reasons. Whenever a single teeth fall or the whole jaw is okay with the teeth, the gums and bones got deteriorate. To control this deterioration, vestibuloplasty is performed. After losing every single teeth, the bones get absorbed by the body. This may happen in response to the conventional dentures which are tissue supported. This absorption of bones leads to the loss of vestibule and decreased surface area for the support of denture. As a treatment, vestibuloplasty is performed. Vestibuloplasty repairs the loss of vestibule in oral cavity.

Forefoot Valgus Deformity, Wedge, Causes, Treatment | Forefoot Valgus vs Varus

Forefoot valgus is the condition of foot in which the inner side of foot is turned towards outside. In medical terms we can define it as structural eversion of the forefoot. Basically it is the deformity in the structure and position of forefoot. As the name indicates, it is associated with the forefoot and rear-foot is not involved. Basically eversion of forefoot occurs at midtarsal joint. The lateral column of forefoot got inverted and helps to propel the supporting surface. All this happen during the midstance and propulsive phases of gait. There are two main types of forefoot valgus i.e. flexible forefoot valgus and rigid forefoot valgus.

Forefoot Valgus Causes


Forefoot valgus can occur due to many reasons. As it is a structural deformity, so all the causes are related to the bone deformity. It is a rare condition which is presented as biomechanical variation. Commonly it is observed associated with excessive subtalar pronation and severe tibial valgum which is also known as knock knees. Basically the deformity occurs at metatarsal joint. This joint lies exactly between the forefoot and rarefoot. The eversion of metatarsal joint differentiate rarefoot valgus from forefoot valgus. It may occur due to bone injury and may be congenital.

Forefoot Valgus Deformity, Wedge, Causes, Treatment  Forefoot Valgus vs Varus

Forefoot Valgus Treatment


Forefoot valgus can be treated with surgical procedure. It also depends upon the underlying cause. If it occurs due to some muscle weakness or soft tissue stiffness, then some exercises may help in treating forefoot valgus. In case of rigid forefoot valgus, these corrective exercises may not work. Other than this surgical procedure is used to correct the posture of foot. The everted foot is corrected. And then some simple movements help a lot in reversing the normal functioning of foot. Surgery can only correct the structure of foot but the movement of foot can be reversed to normal with the help of exercises.

Forefoot Valgus Deformity


Forefoot valgus is a rare structural and positional deformity of forefoot. This deformity basically occurs at metatarsal joint. Metatarsal joint is the main joint which differentiate forefoot valgus from rarefoot valgus. This deformity disturbs the walking posture of body. There are two main types of this deformity. These types are classified on the basis of severity of eversion i.e. rigid forefoot valgus and flexible forefoot valgus. Treatment is also based upon the cause and the type of forefoot valgus deformity. In flexible one, exercises may help but in rigid one, surgical correction is required.

Forefoot Valgus v/s Forefoot Varus


Forefoot valgus and forefoot varus are almost the same conditions with a slight change. Forefoot valgus is a rare structural and positional deformity of forefoot. In forefoot valgus, the inner side of foot is tilted outward. But in forefoot varus, the case is opposite i.e. the outer side of foot is tilted inward. Both the conditions are rare and have almost same causes and symptoms. The treatment strategies for both of these conditions is almost same. Both of these conditions disturbs the posture of human body.

Pelvocaliectasis Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pelvocaliectasis is a condition which describes the dilation of renal pelvis and the collecting system of kidney. And there may be many reasons behind it but the most common one reported is hydronephrosis. In hydronephrosis, the renal pelvis become dilated due to obstruction in flow. This obstruction occurs due to kidney stones. Usually hydronephrosis is used as another name for pelvocaliectasis. In hydronephrosis, due to kidney stones, urine could not find way to flow out of body, and as a result, the kidney get dilated.

Other than kidney stones, it may also occur due to some Illness or medical condition. Normally, kidney filters waste material from blood and pass it on to kidney calyces. These calyces form renal pelvis. From calyces, collected waste is passed on to ureter. Ureter is responsible for creating connection between bladder and renal pelvis. Urethra is the tube which carries urine and transfer it. Hydronephrosis may be congenital or may occur due to physiological response in pregnancy. Some researchers described that, this condition may occur due to progesterone effect on the kidney. Pelvocaliectasis leads to various complications. Some of the complications are decreased blood purification rate, increased pressure on kidney and increased fluid accumulation.

Pelvocaliectasis Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pelvocaliectasis Symptoms


The symptoms of pelvocaliectasis may be direct or indirect. Symptoms also depends upon the underlying cause. If kidney stones is the cause, then patient may experience an intense pain with acute onset in back, which may further expand to groin region. Nausea, vomiting and sweating are also associated. Sudden pain layer may be experienced in kidney and patient may roll down due to intensity of pain. Sometimes, blood traces are seen in urine. Now some severe symptoms are associated with chronic pelvocaliectasis. These symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, leg swelling, nausea, vomiting and malaise etc.

Pelvocaliectasis Causes


There are various causes behind pelvocaliectasis which are classified on the basis of location of swelling. Causes may be intrinsic i.e. inside urinary collecting system or extrinsic i.e. outside urinary collecting system. It may also occur due to alteration in the functioning of kidney. In case of intrinsic causes of pelvocaliectasis, there may be kidney stones, blood clot, stricture or scarring in ureter. There may be stones in bladder, bladder cancer, bladder neck contracture and bladder cancer. In urethra, there may be cancer, valves or stricture. In extrinsic causes, there may be tumor or cancer of cervix or prostate.

Pelvocaliectasis Treatment


In case of acute pelvocaliectasis, patient feels intense unbearable pain in kidney and need sudden treatment. Pain killers are used for that purpose. If blood is observed in urine, then it may be due to an infection. Antibiotics are used for this infection. Tumors and appendicitis are also the main causes and can be treated via chemotherapy. If there is fever associated with pelvocaliectasis, medications for fever are also required. Patient may develop bacteremia and it may prove fatal for patient. It is a blood stream bacterial infection and needs sudden medical attention. If patient has only one kidney, then the mortality rate is high.

Spastic Dysarthria Charactersitics, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dysarthria is a condition which is described as speech disorder. It occurs due to slowness or in-coordination of speech mechanism. It may also occur due to disturbance in muscular control weakness. All this results from injury in Central and peripheral nervous system. Spastic dysarthria is the type of dysarthria which is classified on the basis of site of lesion in nervous system. When the lesion is on pyramidal and extrapyramidal system then spastic dysarthria occurs. In pyramidal tract, the fibers which carry messages to the brain are basically get damaged. Patient face problems in speech along with muscular weakness in spastic dysarthria.

Spastic Dysarthria Charactersitics, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Spastic Dysarthria Symptoms


Primary voluntary motor pathways got damage in spastic dysarthria. Common symptoms of spastic dysarthria include

  • Production of slurred sound
  • Rate of speech is slow and labored.
  • Unintelligibility in periods of speech.
  • The voice quality is starined and strangled.
  • Increased abnormality in nasal speech quality.
  • Breathing pattern in speech is also disturbed i.e. forced, shallow and overall disruptive. In addition to this speech breathing patterns may be uncontrolled and in-coordinated.
  • The pitch of vocal cords is limited. Along with this, loudness range also becomes limited.

All these symptoms are specified in spastic dysarthria which makes it different from other types of dysarthria.

Spastic Dysarthria Causes


Dysarthria is classified on the basis of site of lesion in the nervous system. So in spastic dysarthria, lesion occurs on the pyramidal tract of nervous system. Fibers present in the pyramid track are responsible for transformation of messages to brain, when these fibers got damaged, messages are not conveyed and person face problems during speech. The pyramid track is also known as corticospinal tract. Corticobulbar tract is involved in transferring signals to the cranial nerves which are associated with swallowing and speech. It is also associated with muscle weakness and abnormal force physiology.

Spastic Dysarthria Treatment


To treat spastic dysarthria, the treatment guidelines of dysarthria are used. Restorative treatment is used in which the impaired function is restored and other treatment guideline include compensatory treatment in which the impairment is compensated because of no restoration. The restorative treatment approach focus on intelligibility of speech, naturalness and efficiency of speech. The compensatory treatment approach focus on the communication strategies of patient. Change in communication environment of patient. Other than these two strategies, it can be treated via preserving and maintaining functions of nervous system. The lesions and damage is cured with the most effective medical treatment.

Spastic Dysarthria Characteristics


Talking about the characteristics of spastic dysarthria, it is a type of dysarthria which occurs due to lesion or damage in the pyramid tract of nervous system. Pyramid tract contains fibers which are involved. It is a motor speech disorder. Articobulbar tract is mainly involved in lesion because it is associated with the speech And swallowing control center. In spastic dysarthria, the strength of speech, coordination of speech, range of motion, speed of speech and musculature movements are affected mainly. These characteristic symptoms makes it different from other types of dysarthria.

Bombay Phenotype Definition, Epistasis, Example, Blood Group

It is a type of blood group which is also known as h/h blood group or Oh blood group. It is a rare type of blood group. This blood group type was 1st discovered in Bombay India, that's why it is known as Bombay phenotype. Now it is known as Mumbai in India. It is rare genetic trait and does not contain expression of A, B or H antigens on red blood cells. In Bombay phenotype, the H Gene is missing which is responsible for producing H antigen and also a precursor of A and B antigen. When H antigen is not expressed so, A and B antigens also cannot be expressed.

In that case, the serum contains anti A, anti B and anti H antigen. When two rare recessive genes are inherited in infant, ABO blood group or Bombay phenotype forms. It occurs on the locus other than ABO Gene locus. Usually Bombay phenotype results from consanguineous mating i.e. parents are relatives by blood (first cousins). H antigen is rare , so whenever inter breeding occurs, the proportion of rare homozygotes increases and results in Bombay phenotype. Bombay phenotype is not compatible to donate blood to the normal ABO blood groups i.e. A, B, O and AB blood group.

Bombay Phenotype Definition, Epistasis, Example, Blood Group

Bombay Phenotype Epistasis


Epistasis is a technique which is used to mask expression of a gene on a specific chromosome, At locus or other position. Dominance is another term which can be confused with epistasis but dominance is the interaction of genes at same locus. One of the best example of epistasis is Bombay phenotype. It is better re-presentable in humans. There are almost 30 to 70 thousand Gene loci present in human genome. Some of them are interacting with other complicating the identification of their roles and metabolism.

Bombay Phenotype Example


Bombay phenotype is a type of blood group which does not contain A, B or H genetic trait. This blood group type is a rare one and usually results in inter family marriages. When two parents have blood relationship like 1st cousins, there are higher chances of inheritance of rare H antigen in the fetus. It was 1st discovered in Bombay which is currently known as Mumbai. It is better re presentable in humans. It is a best example for the explanation of epistasis process. In epistasis, the required Gene expression is masked on the locus or other position of desired chromosome.

Bombay Phenotype Blood Group


Bombay phenotype is a different and rare type of blood group. As we know that every blood group has it's specific antigen on the surface of red blood cells. But an antigen named H antigen is present in all types of blood groups. But when we studied Bombay phenotype, H antigen was absent in this blood group. This absence makes it different from other blood groups. It's sera contains anti A, anti B and anti H antibodies. There is problem in parenting confirmation in this type of blood group. Usually the blood group does not match with any other blood group.

Thornwaldt Cyst Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Cancer, Treatment

Nasopharyngeal cyst and tornwaldt cyst are the two other named of thornwaldt cyst. This cyst is located in the upper posterior nasopharyngeal region. It is benign in nature. This benign cyst can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging MRI and computed tomography scan CT scan of head. It can be seen as a round mass present in midline of head. This cyst was named after a scientist named Gustav ludwig tornwaldt. Treatment is not necessary in most of the cases. Usually it is diagnosed incidentally during flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. It is asymptomatic in nature and infected fluid may extrude from it.

Thornwaldt Cyst Symptoms


The common symptoms associated with thornwaldt cyst include headache in the occipital region of brain (most common symptom), effusion in middle ear, cervical myalgia and halitosis. Symptoms also depends upon the severity and size of the cyst. When the thornwaldt cyst is infected and become large in size, patient may complain about nasal obstruction, post natal discharge along with bad breathe in mouth, patient's body may produce foul smelling odour and headache. Eustachian tube may get obstructed and this is defined in a term otalgia. Other than this, there may be secretary otitis media.

Thornwaldt Cyst Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Cancer, Treatment

Thornwaldt Cyst Causes


Thornwaldt cyst show the non specific symptoms which make it difficult to diagnose. The main cause being its occurrence may be the congenital one. Congenital remnant of the notocord and pharyngeal ectoderm in the upper posterior nasopharynx is counted as the main cause behind it. The tissue residues which combines to form a pouch or bursa is responsible for the formation of cyst. The superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx is involved on which the thornwaldt cyst form. The mucous membrane of nasopharynx covers it all over. It is an uncommon cyst which has a occurrence rate of 0.2 to 4 percent.

Thornwaldt Cyst Cancer


Thornwaldt cyst is benign in nature but it can be converted in to a malignant one if the cyst become infected. The infected cyst start secreting infected fluid from it. When this fluid get in touch with other parts of brain, it makes them effected. This is how it converted in to malignant thornwaldt cyst from benign one. The malignant thornwaldt cyst may prove fatal for patient because of the most sensitive region involvement in this cyst. Due to its malignancy, the symptoms become worse and vary from common symptoms of benign cyst.

Thornwaldt Cyst Treatment


Talking about the treatment of thornwaldt, the treatment is not necessary. As it is asymptomatic, which makes the treatment un necessary. In case the benign thornwaldt cyst turns in to a malignant one, then an endoscopy naked trans nasal endoscopy marsupialization. In this endoscopy, the infected drainage of malignant cyst along with enlarged cysts can be drained easily out of the brain. This is the only treatment for this cyst. Usually headache is counted as a common symptom and pain killers are administered to relief such symptoms. If the malignant thornwaldt cyst is left untreated, then it may prove fatal for patient.

Trichodynia definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trichodynia is condition of scalp in which patient feels pain, itching and burning sensation in scalp. It is also termed as burning scalp syndrome. It commonly occurs in females as compared to men. It is estimated that in women, trichodynia occurs three times more as compared to men. Trichodynia is associated with the nerves of scalp connected to nervous system. These nerves carry signals to control center and brain response to pain. It has a close relationship with hair loss. The nerves involved in trichodynia, are extremely sensitive nerves. The sensitive nerves along with hair fall can trigger each other in this disease.

Scalp itching is also reported in most of the cases. It is a common disease, seen in women. Patient can feel the increased intensity of pain while combing hair or touching scalp with bare hands. Trichodynia may occur secondary to some diseases. These diseases include androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium. In later one, patient face problem in growth of hair due to some environmental factors and child birth factors. Hair loss is permanent in case of androgenetic alopecia. It is concluded that hair loss is the most common symptom associated with trichodynia or burning scalp syndrome.

Trichodynia definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Trichodynia Symptoms


Symptoms of trichodynia are simple and can be observed easily. Pain is the main symptom associated with it. The nerves of the scalp are highly sensitive. Patient may have a feeling of pricking scalp skin. Itching and burning of scalp are also observed in most of the cases. Due to itching, patient may have wound on scalp along with redness. Hair fall is the common complication of trichodynia. All the above mentioned symptoms should be treated on time, otherwise these will become severe and irreversible. In this condition, production of sebum and dandruff have not seen in any of the case.

Trichodynia Causes


The most common reasons behind trichodynia are listed below:

  • It may occur due to incomplete drying of hair after taking shower. As it may damage the hair follicles.
  • Due to tight hair binding, trichodynia may occur. Because hair follicles can't breathe properly.
  • Due to deficiency of vitamin D, hair follicles may weaken and leads to trichodynia.
  • Hair conditioners which are dry and intense can destroy the hair follicles leading to trichodynia.
  • Mostly people are allergic to hair dye and can develop trichodynia.
  • It may occur secondary to stress, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. And these have direct relationship with trichodynia.


Trichodynia Treatment


Trichodynia is the common condition with a lot a causes and symptoms. To treat the symptoms of trichodynia, the causes should be treated. If hair loss or the associated trichodynia occur due to stress and anxiety and depression then anti depressants are prescribed. In case of decreased vitamin D level, vitamin D injections are prescribed. There are some precautions too in case of handling wet hair, which helps a lot in avoiding occurrence of trichodynia. In case of cosmetic products allergy, these products should be avoided. If necessary, use the medicated cosmetic products.

Ameloblastic Fibroma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ameoblastic fibroma is a type of tumor present in the oral cavity. It is an odotogenic tumor in which there is no production of enamel, cementum or dentin. In this condition, the immature masenchymal or epidermal cells of teeth are proliferate. Ameoblastic fibroma is neoplastic in nature but sometimes it may be hamartomatous in nature i.e. an odontoma. The most common site of occurrence is the posterior region of mandible. It also occurs on maxilla but extremely rare. Children are commonly prone to this odontogenic tumor.

The diagnosis of ameoblastic fibroma is very important. According to its location of occurrence, it is divided in to two main types i.e. maxillary ameoblastic fibroma and mandibular ameoblastic fibroma. It is benign in nature and does not spread to the whole mouth. When we say it is neoplastic in nature, then there is another term which is used to describe it better i.e. ameoblastic fibrosarcoma. Fibroma is another word which is used to describe the benign tumor but fibrosarcoma is used to describe its malignancy. It commonly occur in the first two decades of life. The most common cause reported behind ameoblastic fibroma is the presence of an unerupted teeth. Diagnosis of this tumor is really necessary to make it different from malignant one.

Ameloblastic Fibroma Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Ameoblastic Fibroma Symptoms


Ameoblastic fibroma has some specific symptoms which are limited in number. It commonly occur in children and in young adults usually between the age of 15 to 25 years. Swelling can be seen easily with a naked eye. The jaw expands and looks wider than usual. No pain is associated with it. Ameoblastic fibroma appear as a unilocular radiolucency. It most commonly occur on the mandible jaw line and rarely involves maxilla. These are basically the lesions which are benign in nature but may turn in to malignant ones.

Ameoblastic Fibroma Causes


There are not much causes reported behind the occurrence of ameoblastic fibroma. In almost more than 50 percent of cases, an unerupted tooth is reported as a major cause. Ameoblastic fibroma is basically a lesion which turns in to a tumor. The tumor is benign in nature I.e. odontogenic but it may turn in to malignant one later i.e. neoplastic. The formation of tooth enamel is disturbed. Lesion may occur due to any infection in the teeth. Other than this, lesions may also occur due to hard food particles during chewing and swallowing food

Ameoblastic Fibroma Treatment


Ameoblastic fibroma can be treated with a surgical excision of tumor. The surgery which is performed to clear the tumor cells is known as enucleation. In enucleation, the tumor cells are removed with the help of surgical instruments and the curretage of the normal bone surrounding it is also reported. Enucleation is a safe process and a localized one. In this surgical procedure, only the tumor cells are removed without any loss to the adjacent teeth. The rate of re-occurrence is higher in case of non hygienic conditions. So proper care is needed after surgery to control it's re-occurrence.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Adenomatoid and odontogenic are two different terms. To completely understand adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, these terms should be clear. Adenomatoid tumor means a type of tumor which originated from the lining of an organ. And odontogenic tumor is the cyst formation in the jaw. Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development. Now combining both of these terms, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is defined as the tumor or cyst which occurs in the jaws and orginiates from the enamel of jaws or dental lamina.

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is not a common disease and occur preferably in young people. Almost two third of cases are reported in women. Diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is important to confirm it's presence and to select the most accurate type of treatment. On radiographic imaging, this tumor appears as a dark colored region which is present around the erupted. The erupted teeth also involves the cementoenamel junction. It is usually mixed with dentigerous cyst so the differential diagnosis is important. The difference is in the radiolucencies of these two conditions. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor extends apically and spread beyond the cementoenamel junction. Usually it is misdiagnosed as a cyst. So it is concluded that diagnosis is an important factor in case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Symptoms


Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor usually does not have symptoms. It usually occur on maxillary jaw and rarely occur on mandibular jaw. Almost two third cases of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor involves anterior maxilla and one third cases involves anterior mandible. Some of the cases are associated with impacted tooth i.e. canine. There are no systemic symptoms associated with adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. It can be easily seen as a dark colored region around the unerupted teeth I.e. canine. It spread beyond the cementoenamel junction of teeth which makes it easier to diagnose.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Causes


Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a dental tumor which involves the enamel if associated teeth. It is also termed as hamartomatous. It may occur due to a lesion in the maxillary or mandibular jaw. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is benign in nature. It is a rare type of tumor which mainly effect females at the 2nd  decade of their life. Lesion may occur due to a maxillary canine teeth which is impacted. Impacted canine is the common cause of lesion, but it may also occur as a result of hard food particles during chewing and swallowing.

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Treatment


Treatment of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor involves surgical removal of cells. And this specific surgery is known as enucleation. In enucleation, the mass or tissues which are involved in tumor are surgically removed without any dissection or cutting of lesion. It can be performed for eyes, oral cavity and uterine tumors. In enucleation, the tissues which are soft and hard , both are removed surgically. Only those tissues are removed which are involved in lesion. This is the only type of treatment for adenomatoid odontogenic tumor which is effective. As there are no symptoms, so no medications are used for the symptoms.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Propriospinal myoclonus is a condition in which patient feels repetitive jerking of neck, trunk, hips and knees. The jerking is painless. It is a rare disease. This body jerking may occur in response to any stimulous or it may be spontaneous. If the patient is in lying position, then this body jerking may become worse. Sometimes there are some symptoms attached to this jerking like patient may feel tingling at the back side of neck, an electric current like sensation or a clicking sensation in the head can precede the jerks.

There are some common causes behind it like it can occur secondary to some medications, a lesson in the spinal region and some kind of infection in body. In most of the cases, the exact cause is unknown. Researchers believe to some extent that there is some psychogenic component in propriospinal myoclonus. Talking about the word myoclonus, it is an involuntary and quick movement of muscles. Hiccups is the type of myoclonus. It can usually be felt before sleep. Hiccups is healthy type of myoclonus. The treatment of propriospinal myoclonus is based on the underlying cause. But if the exact cause behind it is unknown, then treatment is based on reducing the effects of myoclonus on patient.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Propriospinal Myoclonus Symptoms


It is a rare disease with abnormal muscle movement. The muscle jerk is abnormal and sudden. Usually jerks occur in neck, trunk, knee and hips. The symptoms appear suddenly. These are brief and ends on it's own after some time. These jerks are involuntary in nature and cannot be controlled. The intensity and frequency of these jerks varies every time. Sometimes it is localized to a specific part of body and sometimes it involves the whole body. Sometimes the symptoms are severe enough that patient can't even eat, speak or walk properly.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Causes


In most of the cases, the cause is idiopathic i.e. the exact cause is unknown. But in some cases , the recorded causes include any kind of infection in body, injury or lesion in the spinal region of brain and it may occur secondary to some medications. The exact diagnosis for the cause is necessary because it makes the treatment easier. There are some healthy myoclonus which normally occur in person like hiccups, before sleep starts. Body shaking due to any stress and anxiety. Exercises can also cause myoclonus. Usually the onset is sudden and resolve on it's own.

Propriospinal Myoclonus Treatment


Propriospinal myoclonus can be treated by treating the underlying cause. The cause has it's respective treatment plan which can help in treating propriospinal myoclonus. There are some medications which are used in treatment. These medications include tranquilizers and anticonvulsants. Clonazepam is the tranquilizer which is commonly prescribed. Levetiracetam is the anticonvulsant which is effective. Botox injections are also helpful in treating propriospinal myoclonus. If these medications does not work, then surgery is the option. Surgery is performed in case of lesion in the spinal region of brain. Deep brain stimulation is another technique used in treatment.

Mediastinotomy Definition, Procedure, Complications, Cervical Approach

Mediastinotomy is a surgical procedure in which a small opening is made in mediastinum to take a view of inside of cavity between lungs and chest wall. Through this hole or opening, an endoscope is introduced which shows the inner part of lungs. The introduction of endoscope in mediastinum opening, is termed as mediastinoscopy. These two process are complementary to each other. Mediastinum is the protective layer which separates two cavities. It is present outside the lungs boundary and separates lungs from the chest wall cavity. In case of any pulmonary problem, mediastinotomy is performed to check the inner functioning. This procedure is performed for the purpose of biopsy.

Biopsy is the diagnostic test which is performed to take samples from any site of body. Mediastinotomy is performed in case of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and to evaluate the stage of lung cancer and esophageal cancer. There are many other procedures which are introduced now a days to evaluate the stage of cancer and the need of mediastinotomy has decreased. It is a simple process with almost zero complications. But there are some conditions in which mediastinotomy is contraindicated. These conditions include tracheostomy, median sternostomy, superior vena cava syndrome, aneurysm of aortic arch and last but not least previous mediastinal irradiation.

Mediastinotomy Definition, Procedure, Complications, Cervical Approach

Mediastinotomy Procedure


After administration of general anesthesia, surgeon will make a small incision in the chest and will move aside the muscles to check the inner view. Now with the help of surgical instruments, surgeon will take samples inside of cavity. The space between the lungs and heart is also examined. After taking sample for test, the wound will be sewed again. The stitches and wound will be covered with bandage or dressing. The total time required for the surgery is about 30 min to 2 hours. Patient may feel a little bit of pain during procedure.

Mediastinotomy Complications


There are less than 1 percent complications associated with mediastinotomy. So it is a safe procedure. But the possible complications for mediastinotomy are

Hoarseness, excessive bleeding, anemia due to loss of blood, there may be an infection due to unsterilized instruments and open wound. Lymphatic fluid may leak in to the chest which is termed as chylothorax. The organs of chest cavity may get damaged. Pneumothorax is the common complication in which air got trapped in between the chest wall and lungs. Patient should avoid all those factors which may increase the chances of complications. These factors include smoking, some chronic diseases and drinking.

Mediastinotomy Cervical Approach


Mediastinotomy can also be performed in case of problem in mediastinum in cervix of brain. It is performed to evaluate staging of mediastinal lymphadenopathy nodes specially in patients suffering from bronchogenic carcinoma. It is performed to take mediastinal masses. It is a simple procedure even in case of cervical mediastinotomy. The morbidity and mortality rate of cervical mediastinotomy is also extremely low. The useful aspects of this surgery are greater in number. But now a days other procedures have been introduced to do biopsy of brain. Mediastinotomy of cervical region is a complicated and hard task but the results are good.

Hypoglycorrhachia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoglycorrhachia is a condition in which the level of glucose is low in the cerebrospinal fluid. The name indicates hypo means less and glycorrhachia defines the level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid. Basically glycorrhachia is a measurement which describes the level of glucose. The level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid is proportional to the level of glucose in blood. Glucose in cerebrospinal fluid corresponds 60 to 70 percent of the concentration in blood. The range of glucose level in CSF is 2.5 to 4.4 mmol/L. Converting it into mg per dL it becomes 45 to 80 mg per dL.

There may be many reasons behind the lower level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid some of them are infections in Central nervous system, subarachnoid hemorrhage, increased glycotic activity of central nervous system, inflammatory conditions, hypoglycemia and many more. Glucose level in cerebrospinal fluid is a diagnostic parameter for many brain diseases mainly meningitis. 50 to 60 percent of patients with bacterial Meningitis have decreased glucose level in cerebrospinal fluid. If there is any infection in brain, then the the process of glycolysis is increased. Glycolysis is done by both white blood cells and the pathogens which in turn responsible for decreased amount of glucose.

Hypoglycorrhachia Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Hypoglycorrhachia Symptoms


Talking about the symptoms of hypoglycorrhachia, it mostly resemble a condition named neuroglycopenia. Some of the common symptoms are as follows:

  • Mental confusion.
  • Patient face difficulty in concentrating on something.
  • Dysarthria
  • Headache
  • Changes in behavior
  • Staring.
  • Disturbance in vision.
  • Diplopia and decreased acuity
  • Somnolence
  • Coma is the serious complication.
  • Ataxia.
  • Seizures
  • Dizziness
  • Decerebrate or decorticate posturing
  • Stroke
  • Amnesia
  • Paresthesias.


Hemiplegia and last but not least aphasia.

All these symptoms are the indication of decreased level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid. All these symptoms are associated with brain due to which the whole body functioning is disturbed.

Hypoglycorrhachia Causes


There are different causes of hypoglycorrhachia but mainly it is secondary to brain diseases. Infections of Central nervous system are the main cause of hypoglycorrhachia. As in infection, the glycolysis process is increased by both white blood cells and pathogens. This cerebrospinal fluid has impaired glucose and pass through blood brain barrier. Other than infections of CNS, inflammatory infections, impaired glucose transport, metastatic carcinoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and increased glycolytic activity in CNS. Hypoglycorrhachia is also a diagnostic parameter for brain diseases like meningitis. In bacterial Meningitis, the level of glucose in cerebrospinal fluid is low but in viral Meningitis, the level of glucose is normal.

Hypoglycorrhachia Treatment


Hypoglycorrhachia treatment is important because if it is left untreated, then it may prove fatal for health. As it does not occur on it's own and is secondary to some diseases. So treating the underlying disease will ultimately treat hypoglycorrhachia. If there is any infection, then treating the infection will help. Antibiotics are used for that purpose. The no. Of pathogens will decrease and glycolysis will also decrease. Inflammatory diseases can also be treated with NSAIDS. like wise all the other causes can be treated with their respective treatments.

Patulous Esophagus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Patulous esophagus is defined as widening of the esophagus. Patulous is a word which means opening up or distended and esophagus is a tube which is hollow and muscular. Esophagus connects throat to the stomach. There are two sphincters in esophagus. One sphincter is present at the upper end of stomach and is known as pyloric sphincter other sphincter is present at the lower end of stomach which is named as distill sphincter. In patulous esophagus, these sphincters become wide open which causes difficulty in digestion. It leads to various complications and the most common one is gastroesophageal reflux.

The food content passes rapidly through the esophagus and causes problem in metabolism. Esophagus is the main part of gastrointestinal tract and any problem in this part can disturb the whole system of digestion. It is a common condition and can affect 90 Percent of patients with disorder. In patulous esophagus, the distill part ofesophagus is usually affected (distill two third part).  In patulous esophagus, patient commonly experience nausea, vomiting, dysphagia and dyspepsia. Other than these, some symptoms occur which belongs to the larynx of esophagus. Talking about the causes of patulous esophagus, there are various contributing factors which causes this problem.

Patulous Esophagus Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Patulous Esophagus Symptoms


Patulous esophagus is the widening of esophagus which causes problem with the digestion and metabolism of food. The following symptoms are associated with this.

  • Patient may feel heaviness in stomach.
  • The metabolism becomes fast and patient may feel warmth in body.
  • Nausea is the common symptom.
  • Some of the patient may experience vomiting too.
  • Dyspepsia is another symptom in which the stomach acid does not work properly.
  • Dysphagia is also the symptom in which patient face problems in digestion.
  • Some of the symptoms are associated with the larynx part. These symptoms include hoarseness, pharyngitis and cough.


Patulous Esophagus Causes


There may be different causes behind patulous esophagus. Some of the common causes include Barrett's esophagus. In Barrett's esophagus, the inner lining of esophagus i.e. lumen is replaced with some other tissues which causes problem in digestion. Gerd is another main cause of patulous esophagus. Gerd is the abbreviation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In this disease, due to widening of esophagus, the gastric contents move backwards to the esophagus. Other than these disorders, patulous esophagus may occur due to any infection because infection in esophagus can disturb the normal Flora and as a result complications occur.

Patulous Esophagus Treatment


Patulous esophagus can be treated with a surgery. And the surgery is named as laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Nissen fundoplication is another name of this surgery. It is performed to create a valve mechanism at the distill end of esophagus. This separate valve system helps a lot in avoiding the esophageal problems. It is mainly performed in gerd to avoid food content reflux. Patients who have not had abdominal surgery ever, may have this surgery. It is recommended in case of severe patulous esophagus. There are some medications which are used initially to treat this condition without surgery.

Dacryolith Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dacryolith is the cast formation which occurs inside the nasolacrimal sac. The formation of dacryolith may produce obstruction of the normal lacrimal drainage. Basically the shed epithelial cells form the dacryolith. Other than shed epithelial cells, amorphous debris and lipids also form dacryolith. It either contain traces of calcium in it or does not have calcium traces. Usually there isn't any abnormality or inciting event is reported in dacryolith. Dacryolith is a usual condition and may occur secondary to some medications like topical epinephrine. Infection related to some specific species i.e. candida species or actinomyces Israelii.

Dacryolith may form in patients having normal lacrimal drainage system. Dacryolith is the condition, which when occurs leads to intermittent symptoms. Symptoms also depends upon the location of formation of dacryolith. Dacryolith may occur secondary to any preexisting obstruction, in this case,  the symptoms are unremitting. Acute impaction of the dacryolith in the normal lacrimal drainage may leads to distension of lacrimal fluid sac. Substantial pain is associated with this acute impaction of dacryolith. During DCR, dacryolith cast can be easily removed. Dacryolith is like a stone which is hard on touch and can be felt easily without touching. Pain confirms the formation of dacryolith.

Dacryolith Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Dacryolith Symptoms


The symptoms of dacryolith are intermittent. Patient feels pain. Intermittent epiphora is the main symptom which occurs without inflammation. There is no recurrent dacryocystitis. In some cases , dacryoliths formation can be associated with acute or chronic dacryocystitis. In some cases, inflammation may also occur. The symptoms of dacryolith may be intermittent or persistent and it all depends on the location of dacryolith cast. If Dacryolith forms in the normal lacrimal drainage due to the preexisting obstruction, intermittent symptoms appear. Patient may feel pain and itching at the location of occurrence if Dacryolith cast in lacrimal drainage.

Dacryolith Causes


Dacryolith can occur due to many reasons. The exact main cause is still unknown. But the reported main causes include some infections. Infection because of actinomyces Israelii and candida species are responsible for the formation of Dacryolith. It may occur secondary to some medications like epinephrine. Secondary to medications, the cast formed is easier to cure. Long term administration of topical medications contribute a lot towards its formation. It usually occur in patients with normal lacrimal drainage system. There is not any gender priority as it equally effects both male and female. Its occurrence is sudden.

Dacryolith Treatment


Dacryolith is treated with a surgical process named dacryocystorhinostomy. Its abbreviation is DCR. In this procedure, the epiphora or Dacryolith is teared due to the blockage of lacrimal duct of nose. Another procedure named endoscopic Dacryolith is performed to treat any obstruction in the lacrimal duct. It is a simple process and patient will take about 7 to 10 days to recover completely. In this procedure, a hole is made between the inner side of nose and the tear sac. And this hole helps in the removal of debris from the sac. The debria or lipids which accumulate in the lacrimal drainage system, can be easily removed with this surgery.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Juvenile gigantomastia is a rare and benign condition in which the size of breast abnormally increase during adolescence. It may occur on either side of breast. The exact cause behind this condition us unknown and the factors which contribute towards it's occurrence include puberty, secondary to medications and pregnancy. This condition specifically occurs in women and does not occur in men. The breast growth is normal and take about years to develop fully. In juvenile gigantomastia, the breast grows bigger in size within days. The growth is faster than usual and the breast grows bigger in size within days.

Patient may experience pain in breast, back pain, infection and some posture problems. Juvenile gigantomastia is a benign condition which cause physical disability if not treated. It is non cancerous and does not spread. Is some cases, juvenile gigantomastia may resolve on it's own after some specific time period but if not, then breast reduction surgery or mastectomy is performed as a treatment. Breast hypertrophy and macromastia are the other names of this condition. It is a simple condition, not much complicated with a proper simple treatment plan. It is not common and rarely occur in young girls during the phase of puberty.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Pictures


Juvenile Gigantomastia Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Juvenile Gigantomastia Symptoms


The symptoms of  juvenile gigantomastia are very simple. The common and diagnostic symptom is the enlargement of either side of breast. The abnormal increase in size makes it easier to diagnose. The growth occurs within days. It occurs in girls at the age of puberty and during pregnancy. It does not occur in men. It causes problems in posture. Patient experience pain in the macromastic breast, in shoulders, neck and back. There may be an infection at the site. There may be itching and warmth and redness around breast. Patient feel no sensation at the nipple.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Causes


The exact cause behind this condition is still unknown. The expected causes include the increased sensitivity to female hormones like lactogen and prolactin. Genetics is also a cause. In some cases, juvenile gigantomastia occurs without any reason and the growth is spontaneous. Juvenile gigantomastia shows association with pregnancy and puberty. It may be secondary to some medications like bucillamine, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine and neothetazone. Some of the autoimmune diseases leading to juvenile gigantomastia are chronic arthritis, systemic lupus erythmatosus, psoriasis, hashimotos thyroiditis and myasthenia gravis. All these conditions are the predisposing factors of juvenile gigantomastia.

Juvenile Gigantomastia Treatment


There is not any specific treatment for juvenile gigantomastia. It is treated according to the case. In case of any infection, it is suggested to treat the infection 1st. For these infections and ulcers, antibiotics infused warm dressings and over the counter pain medications are recommended. If it occurs during pregnancy, then there are chances that it may resolve on it's own after delivery of the fetus. If it does not resolve on it's own, then a breast reduction surgery is performed which is known as reduction mammoplasty. During this surgery, the amount of breast tissues is reduced along with dark skin around it.

Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Images, Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy

Bartsocas papas syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive syndrome in which there is severe deformity of face and extremities of body occur. The main characteristic of this condition is webbing of lower extremities. Fetus with bartocas syndrome die within the womb of mother otherwise will die soon after death. It is a congenital disorder. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive manner and abnormal Gene from each parent is required for this condition to occur. The deformity of face and extremities can be described as

Head longer than the usual size in babies. Babies with bartsocas papas syndrome have no hair in head and eyebrows. The eyes are not equal and stand far from each other. Right sided eye is usually small in size like a black colored sloe is sticked half out on flat face.

Babies with bartsocas papas syndrome do not survive because of severity of deformity of body. When there is deformity in the appearance of fetus, there will also problems in the physiological systems of body like problems in vision, breathing, talking and hearing etc. This condition directly leads to death of fetus or baby so there is no treatment plan for this autosomal recessive disease.

Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Images


Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Images, Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy


Bartsocas Papas Syndrome Symptoms


The symptoms of bartsocas papas syndrome are visible. The deformity of face can be easily seen and the symptoms include severe popliteal webbing, a typical flat face with short palpebral fissures, ankyloblepharon, microcephaly (i.e. shorter size of head), presence of filiform bands between the facial clefts and jaws. The nose is hypoplastic nose in bartsocas papas syndrome. Other than this, there may be genital abnormalities, oligosyndactyly and some other ectodermal anomalies like no hair growth on head, eye brows and lashes. There may be impaired growth of nails too. Usually fetus die within the womb but in rare cases the baby die soon after delivery.

Bartsocas Papas Syndrome Causes


It is an autosomal recessive syndrome which is inherited from mother to the fetus. It is inherited via an abnormal Gene from both parents. It is a rare congenital disease and a fatal one too. It does not occur secondary to any disease. It occurs during the development of fetus within the womb of mother. The abnormal appearance makes it easy to diagnose. Although the fetus die within the womb and in rare cases the baby die right after birth. So if mother deliver a baby with bartsocas papas syndrome, he is gonna die soon.

Bartsocas Papas Syndrome Life Expectancy


It is a fatal condition. The chances of life are very low. The abnormal appearance of fetus causes problems in the physiological systems of body like difficulty in breathing, vision, hearing, and other systems of body. These problems leads to the death of fetus within the womb of mother. In rare cases, mother deliver her baby with bartsocas papas syndrome. But the survival chances are very low. Only one in every 50 cases of this condition the baby survive but with a very little deformity.