Segluromet Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Segluromet is a combination of ertugliflozin and metformin hydrochloride. It is indicated to administer along with diet and exercise in diabetes mellitus 2 to control blood glucose level. Ertugliflozin is a selective competitor of sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and metformin is a biguanide. Segluromet is recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is not recommended for diabetes mellitus type 1 and diabetic ketoacidosis. Patient with severe renal impairment, dialysis and end stage renal disease cannot take segluromet.

It is also contraindicated in metabolic acidosis i.e. diabetic ketoacidosis and in patients with serious hypersensitivity reaction towards metformin or ertugliflozin. It also shows some drug interactions with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as it may increase risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs like ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutigravir and cimetidine also show interaction as it can increase accumulation of metformin. Alcohol is reported causing increase in metformin and lactate metabolism. There are some warning and precautions associated with segluromet that it should not be administer during 2nd and 3rd trimester as it can effect fetus. Breastfeeding is not allowed during treatment. Premenopausal females can face potential for an unintended pregnancy.

Segluromet Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Segluromet Mechanism of Action

       
Segluromet is the combination of two drugs i.e. ertugliflozin and metformin hydrochloride. So mechanism of action of both drugs is different. Ertugliflozin is a selective competitor of sodium glucose transporter 2. It decrease the renal threshold of glucose, which rises when maximum glucose reabsorption capacity of kidney exceeds. The decrease in renal glucose threshold leads to increased urinary excretion of glucose.Metformin works by decreasing glucose production in liver. And also decrease absorption of glucose in intestine. Sideways it increase peripheral uptake of glucose improving insulin sensitivity. It also lowers basal and postprandial plasma glucose.

Segluromet Dosage

       
It is available in the form of tablet concentration available is

  • 2.5 mg/500 mg
  • 2.5 mg/1000 mg
  • 7.5 mg/500 mg
  • 7.5 mg/1000 mg.

It is indicated along with diet and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in order to control blood glucose level. The starting dose of segluromet is totally based on current regimen. Daily dose of ertugliflozin should not increase 15 mg with metformin not increasing 2000 mg. it is prescribed two times a day with meal. Patients already on metformin switch to 2.5 mg ertugliflozin tablets and patients already on ertugliflozin switch to tablets containing same dose with metformin.

Segluromet Side effects

       
Segluromet is the combination of two drugs so wide variety of side effects are reported which involves mycotic infection in female and male genitalia. Volume depletion adverse effects, urinary tract infections, vaginal pruritus, headache, Nasopharyngitis, increased urination flow, pain in back, increased thirst and decrease in body weight. Adverse effects of kidney are also reported. All these above mentioned conditions related to ertugliflozin. Side effects related to metformin are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, asthenia, headache and indigestion. Long term use of segluromet can cause decrease in vitamin B 12 absorption.


Segluromet Cost

Segluromet cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Steglujan Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Steglujan Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses.

When ertugliflozin and sitagliptin are combined in a fixed dose combination it is known as steglujan. Ertugliflozin (brand name steglatro) is a sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DDP 4) inhibitor. Steglujan is used in diabetes mellitus type 2 to control blood glucose level. It is indicated as adjunct to diet and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Steglujan is only prescribed when ertugliflozin and sitagliptin is appropriate. There are some limitations with the use of steglujan. Like it is not recommended in diabetes mellitus type 1 and diabetic ketoacidosis.

Contraindications of steglujan includes end stage kidney disease, dialysis and renal impairment because of its excretion through kidney. If patient is sensitive to sitagliptin, then steglujan is not recommended. Patient with history of anaphylaxis and angioedema should avoid steglujan. Sitagliptin is reported with acute pancreatitis which involve fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis. Hypotension is reported with steglujan in patients with renal impairment. With hypotension, there may be associated hypoglycemia due to decreased level of blood glucose. If patient is sensitive to any of the active drug of steglujan then special instructions and precautions should be followed regarding use of steglujan.

Steglujan Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Steglujan Mechanism of Action

         
As steglujan is a combination of two drugs, so each drug have its own specific mechanism of action. Ertugliflozin is a competitor selective sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor. It decrease the renal threshold of glucose, which rises when maximum glucose reabsorption capacity of kidney exceeds. The decrease in renal glucose threshold leads to increased urinary excretion of glucose. Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor. It increases the incretin hormone activity which get inhibited by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 enzyme. Incretins are responsible for increased production of insulin and also increases its synthesis from pancreatic beta cells.

Steglujan Side effects

       
Steglujan have a wide range of reported side effects. It involves side effects of both active drugs and may involve female and male genital mycotic infections. Adverse effects related to volume depletion, headache and most commonly urinary tract infections. Vaginal pruritus, Nasopharyngitis, increased urine flow, back pain and various renal adverse effects. Patient weight may decrease and feels thirst all the time. All the above mentioned side effects are related to ertugliflozin. Side effects related to sitagliptin involve nausea, diarrhea, peripheral edema and upper respiratory tract infection. Post marketing reports reported acute pancreatitis and hepatic enzyme elevations.

Steglujan Dosage

         
It is available in tablet dosage form with concentration of ertugliflozin/sitagliptin 5mg/15mg and 100mg/100mg respectively. Starting dose of steglujan is 5 mg/100 mg administered per day in morning initially. But if further glycemic control is needed, then dose can be increased up to 15 mg/100 mg. patients who are already on ertugliflozin have to maintain its dose when switched to combination. There are some conditions which need dosage modifications and adjustment. Like if steglujan is administered with insulin and insulin secretagogues can increase the risk of hypoglycemia and dosage adjustment is needed there to minimize chances of hypoglycemia.

Steglujan Cost

Steglujan cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Steglatro/ertugliflozin Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Steglatro is a drug which is competitor of sodium glucose co transporter 2. It is indicated for diabetes mellitus type 2. Its generic name is ertugliflozin. Steglatro can be administered as a single drug therapy or can be used in combination with DPP 4 inhibitor drug named sitagliptin or with metformin. American diabetes association stated that steglatro can cause significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin. When steglatro and sitagliptin are combined in a fixed dose combination it is known as steglujan.

Steglatro is administered as an adjunct to exercise and diet in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in order to control glucose level. If treatment with steglujan is appropriate, then it can be used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. Steglatro and steglujan are contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Fixed dose combination of steglatro i.e. steglujan is not prescribed to patients with pancreatitis history because it can increase chances of pancreatitis in diabetic patients. It is also strictly contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity reaction history towards sitagliptin. Both steglatro and steglujan are contraindicated in patients with severe renal failure or in patients with end stage renal disease or on dialysis.

Steglatroertugliflozin Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses



Steglatro/ertugliflozin Mechanism of Action
            

Steglatro is a selective sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor. It is a competitive drug to other inhibitor drugs. When steglatro inhibit sodium glucose transporter 2, it decreases the threshold of renal glucose. I.e. glucose concentration in plasma. Increases the glucose reabsorption capacity of kidney. When there will be decrease in renal glucose threshold, ultimately glucose excretion through urine will increase. Steglatro can show peak level in plasma within one hour of administration in fasting state and 2 hours in fed state. It shows 93.6 % protein binding in plasma during distribution phase. Metabolism is minimum.


Steglatro/ertugliflozin Dosage

         
It is available in the form of tablet (5 mg and 15 mg). as it is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise, so its starting dose is 5 mg PO per day in morning. If this dosage concentration is not enough and require further glycemic control then, dosage concentration may increase up to 15 mg per day. There are some precautions which should be followed like, it is prohibited in combination with high dose insulin and insulin secretagogues because it increases chances of hypoglycemia. Lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogues can be administered to reduce chances of hypoglycemia.

Steglatro/ertugliflozin Side effects

       
Steglatro is a competitive drug and its administration also considers its side effects as compare to other drugs. Some of the main side effects regarding steglatro are mentioned below:

  • There may be volume depletion adverse effects.
  • Patient may feel headache.
  • Urination is increased.
  • Adverse effects related to kidney are also increased.
  • Patient got decrease in weight and feel thirst most of the time.
  • Mycotic infections may occur in male and female genitalia.
  • Urinary tract infections are commonly seen due to its clearance through kidney.
  • Vaginal pruritus, Nasopharyngitis and pain in back side are also reported side effects.

Steglatro/ertugliflozin Cost


Steglatro cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Macrilen/macimorelin Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Macrilen/macimorelin Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses.

Macrilen is the brand name of macimorelin acetate. It is an agonist of ghrelin. It is used in evaluating deficiency of adult growth hormone. This drug was developed by aeterna zentaris. Macrilen binds with receptor named growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) which is responsible for release of growth hormone from pituitary gland. There are some limitations with use of Macrilen drug i.e. it is not effective in diagnosing adult hormone with BMI >40 kg/m2. With Macrilen, increase in QT interval can be seen. 11 micro sec in corrected QT interval is increased.

So Macrilen is not recommended to use in combination of drugs responsible for prolong QT interval. If it is administered with drugs causing prolong QT interval, it may lead to development of torsade de pointes type ventricular tachycardia. Macrilen is considered a diagnostic test for growth hormone deficiency. There are some drugs which can increase the functioning of Macrilen drug like drugs effecting release of growth hormone from pituitary gland (insulin) and drugs which inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme (aspirin). Administration of drugs intriguing production of growth hormone should be quit right 1 week before administration of diagnostic test i.e. Macrilen. It is the most effective drug diagnosing growth hormone deficiency.

Macrilenmacimorelin Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Macrilen/macimorelin Mechanism of Action


Macrilen mimics the effect of ghrelin or known as agonist of ghrelin. Ghrelin is the hormone which releases in response to hunger. It release from cells present in stomach and pancreas. Peptide is released by ghrelin neuropeptide. Ghrelin or Macrilen primarily stimulates release of growth hormone via activating receptor named growth hormone secretagogue receptor. These receptor lies in hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This is the mechanism of action of Macrilen. And it diagnose level of growth hormone because it mimics ghrelin. Its absorption is total dependent on its dosage concentration i.e. o.5 mg/kg/dose.

Macrilen/macimorelin Dosage

       
Macrilen is available in the form of granules containing 60 mg/ packet (0.5 mg/ml) reconstitution.
Macrilen is administered after at least 8 hours of fasting. Dosage recommended is 0.5 mg/ kg PO as a single dose. There are some precautions which should be followed while administering Macrilen.
Drugs responsible for prolong QT interval should be completely washout from body. As Macrilen is contraindicated with these drugs. Macrilen is not recommended with drugs causing prolong QT interval in the form of combination. Administration of Macrilen with drugs effecting secretion of growth hormone in pituitary gland is completely prohibited.

Macrilen/macimorelin Side effects

       
Macrilen is a diagnostic drug. So its administration require great care. A little higher dose concentration may cause serious adverse effects or can make side effects worse.

Some of the common side effects related to administration of Macrilen are as follow:


  • Dysgeusia may occur sometimes.
  • Patient may feel dizziness and headache.
  • Nausea is reported in about 3 percent of cases.
  • Fatigue, diarrhea and increased feeling of hunger are also reported side effects.
  • Rare chances of upper respiratory tract infection UTI
  • Nasopharyngitis, sinus bradycardia and hyperhidrosis may occur.
  • Last but not least, patient may feel hotness in body.

Macrilen/macimorelin Cost

Macrilen cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Gammapod Stereotactic Radiotherapy System For Breast Cancer

Stereotactic radiotherapy is designed for the treatment of cancer in brain and other parts of body like lungs, spine and liver and is known as stereotactic body radiation therapy. Recently it is also designed to treat breast cancer at early stage. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is a device named as Gamma Pod in case of breast cancer. Radiations are used to eliminate breast tumor at early stage of diagnosis. Scientists after small clinical trials of about 17 patients reported that Gamma pod have greater efficacy and deliver boost radiation dose of about 8 gy directly to tumor and cause very less adverse effects.

All adverse effects it causes are 1st grade adverse events. 1st breast is immobilized with the help of a vacuum assisted cup specially designed for this purpose, having 1mm slice thickness, cup have stereotactic frame inside it. Immobilization of breast ensures proper delivery of radiations to breast tumor. Patient is asked to lie down on her stomach which ease the immobilization of breast.With gamma pod breast cancer can be treated by delivering ablative doses with sharp gradients with the help of stereotactic image guidance. This system have highly focused radiation which can be achieved at isocenter, this happens because of cross firing radiations from 36 radiation arcs which can be achieved by rotating by 36 individual beams of cobalt 60.

This system is effective and widely used due to its spot action i.e. radiations only hit the tumor without disturbing healthy cells of breast. This system optimizes an optimal path of the focal spot, it is done by optimization algorithm which is borrowed from computational geometry. Target of radiations can be covered 90 to 95 % with gamma pod single dose prescribed. Doses prescribed for surrounding tissues of breast are reduced. Treatment plan of gamma pod works by continuous motion of the treatment couch.

Gammapod Stereotactic Radiotherapy System For Breast Cancer



Gamma pod stereotactic radiotherapy have greater potential to shorten the timing of radiation treatment and also have the potential to eliminate surgery option. As it ablate the tumor cells completely and also sterilize the tumor bed along with this. There are 5 sessions of gamma pod stereotactic body radiotherapy. This system is most efficient system along with reduced cost. It is also patient friendly. It is mostly preferred as compare to current accelerated, hypo fractionated and conventional treatments.

Gamma pod stereotactic body radiotherapy system have following benefits over other current treatment options:


  • Higher doses can be delivered with high conformity and is completely a non-invasive treatment.
  • This system reduce the duration of treatment i.e. from many weeks to some days. (treatment with gamma pod hardly take 5 min to 40 min in single session depending on therapy plan being used)
  • It improves quality of life of patients (women).
  • It increases patient comfort while treatment continues
  • It also reduce dose of surrounding cells along with heart and lungs.
  • Gamma pod system after invention is under development for almost a decade. The 1st prototype was installed and tested at the university of Maryland medical center.

Giapreza/angiotensin II Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for low blood pressure

Giapreza/angiotensin II Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for low blood pressure. The FDA granted the approval of Giapreza to La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company.

Giapreza is an angiotensin II injection. It is indicated for septic and other distributive shock. Septic shock occurs due to reduction in blood pressure. This intravenous injection is designed to elevate systemic blood pressure especially in adult patients with hypotension. Shock occurs when blood is not properly supplied to vital organs of body and could not function properly. Angiotensin II injection i.e. Giapreza proved beneficial in clinical trials. It can also be used in combination with other conventional treatments and greater number of patients respond to combination therapy as compare to placebo drug.

Angiotensin is a peptide hormone which effectively cause vasoconstriction and ultimately leads to high blood pressure. It is considered main part of renin angiotensin system, angiotensin targets this system and increases level of systemic blood pressure. Angiotensin is a dual stimulator, as it stimulates the release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex along with increased blood pressure. Aldosterone is a hormone which increases sodium retention and ultimately leads to blood pressure. While using giaprezin, patient should take prophylactic treatment of blood clots because Giapreza can cause blood clots in veins and arteries including deep venous thrombosis. Giapreza is a drug used in emergency situation because it has sudden onset.

Giaprezaangiotensin II Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for low blood pressure


Giapreza/angiotensin II Mechanism of Action

     
Giapreza is the brand name of angiotensin II injection. Angiotensin II is the main agent acting on RAAS abbreviated as renin angiotensin-aldosterone system. RAAS is known as the main system responsible for regulation of blood pressure. Giapreza of mechanism in which Angiotensin primarily cause vasoconstriction and also increase aldosterone release. Angiotensin directly act on walls of vessels by binding to G protein coupled angiotensin II type 1 receptor. This receptor is present on vascular smooth muscle cells which are responsible for stimulating Ca2+/ calmodulin dependent phosphorylation of myosin. As a result causes smooth muscle contraction.

Giapreza/angiotensin II Dosage

         
Giapreza is administered in dosage levels. 1st dose is administered of concentration 20 mg/ kg/minute IV with the help of continuous infusion. 2nd dose is administered to titrate with concentration 15 ng/kg/min by keeping in view of blood pressure responding. This dose is titrated every 5 min to achieve desired blood pressure level. Dose should not exceed 80 ng/kg/min during 1st three hours of treatment. Maintenance dose should not increase 40 ng/kg/min and recommended dose is 1.25 ng/kg/min. when desired blood pressure is achieved, dose is titrated downwards every 5 to 15 min. administration is recommended via central venous line.

Giapreza/angiotensin II Side effects

       
Giapreza is used as a primary treatment to hypotension and shock and other distributive shocks. Main side effect associated with Giapreza is formation of clots. So, prophylactic treatment of blood clots is recommended before administration of Giapreza. There are 12.9 % cases reported thromboembolic events. Thrombocytopenia, increased heart rate (tachycardia) due to vasoconstriction, fungal infection, rare chances of acidosis, delirium, deep vein thrombosis, hyperglycemia and peripheral ischemia. Patient may feel hyper active after increase in blood pressure. Giapreza is also administered in combination with other therapies so, side effects may vary according to combination therapy.

Giapreza/angiotensin II Cost

Giapreza cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Luxturna is a novel gene therapy. It is used to treat congenital disease related to vision, or we can say inherited blindness. It is a rare disease. Its active ingredient is voretigene neparvovec. FDA have decently approved luxturna making 2017 a milestone year in medicine field. The active ingredient of luxturna is used to treat vision related disease named retinal dystrophy. In this condition, patient suffer from obscured vision at very young age and it can further lead to complete blindness when patient becomes adult.

Basically this disease occurs due to abnormal gene mutation. A gene is responsible for damaging retinal cells and also for production of proteins which are crucial for eyesight. About 2000 people from all over the world get effected to this disease. With the use of luxturna, genes can be replaced and healthy genes with protein generating capabilities can be restored. The gene is injected just below retina. Delivery of healthy gene creates more healthy enzymes and on the other hand it stops progress of disease. It also improves vision of patient but in rare cases. Food drug authority approved luxturna after third clinical trial stage. It also have some side effects along with beneficial effects.


Luxturnavoretigene neparvovec-rzyl Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Mechanism of Action

       
Retinal pigment epithelial cells produce RPE65 which converts all Trans retinal into 11 cis retinol. This 11 cis retinol forms chromophore i.e. 11 cis retinal which is responsible for vision. Chromophore is formed during retinoid cycle (visual cycle). Gene mutation is responsible for reduced concentration of RPE65 which disturbs visual cycle and effects vision. An adeno virus based on vector gene therapy is injected as a healthy copy of infected gene. Which encodes human retinal pigment epithelial 65 kd protein in cells of retina. And increase production of RPE65 or make it biologically active.


Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Dosage


Luxturna is indicated for congenital blindness disease named confirmed biallelic RPE65 mutation associated retinal dystrophy.

Dosage recommended for this disease is 1.5* 10 ^11 vector genome per eye with the help of sub retinal injection. Sub retinal Injection contains 0.3 ml of total volume. Each eye should be administered with sub retinal injection on separate days with specific interval minimum 6 days apart. It is available in 0.5 ml extractable volume in 2 ml vial. The concentration of RPE65 which is supplied is 5* 10^ 12 vg/ml. it should be diluted before administration. And the dilution required is 1:10.

Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Side effects


There are many side effects as well as adverse effects associated with use of luxturna. Some of them are as follows:

  • There are 19% chances of occurrence of cataract and 11% chances of conjunctival hyperemia. 
  • Intraocular pressure may increase. 
  • Inflammation in eye along with retinal tear. 
  • About 4% of cases have reported thinning of corneal stroma called dellen. 
  • Macular hole and sub retinal deposits are also seen around eye and reported in about 4% cases with sub retinoid dystrophy treatment. 
  • Macular surface may get wrinkles.
  • Pain and itching in eye due to sub retinoid injection administration. 
  • Retinal hemorrhage.

Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Uses


Luxturna is used to treat children and adult patients with an inherited form of vision loss that may result in blindness. Luxturna is the first directly administered gene therapy approved in the U.S. that targets a disease caused by mutations in a specific gene.

Luxturna/voretigene neparvovec-rzyl Cost

Luxturna cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Rhopressa/netarsudil Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Rhopressa/netarsudil Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses.

Rhopressa is a brand name of a drug which is prepared in fixed combination of netarsudil/latanoprost agent. It is used to treat glaucoma specifically open angle glaucoma also known as ocular hypertension. Glaucoma can be treated via lowering the level of intra ocular pressure or by creating a better drainage system of fluid from eye. This can be possible via one or combining both of pathways i.e. trabecular meshwork pathway (schlemm’s canal) and uveoscleral pathway. Intraocular pressure can be lowered with eye drops, laser or incisional eye surgery. The most common treatment method used is eye drops.

With the passage of time, patient have to instill multiple types of eye drops to stop the progression of disease. Currently in United States, about 5 drug families are in use to lower the level of intra ocular pressure. Rhopressa is one of them. There are some precautions regarding use of Rhopressa. It contains benzalkonium chloride which may readily absorbed by contact lenses so if patient is wearing any soft contact lenses, he have to take them off before instillation of eye drops of Rhopressa. After 15 minutes of administration of Rhopressa eye drops, patient can re wear soft contact lenses.


Rhopressanetarsudil Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses


Rhopressa/netarsudil Mechanism


Rhopressa is most commonly used drug to treat open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The basic function of Rhopressa is to lower the level of intra ocular pressure. So mechanism via which it lowers intraocular pressure is inhibition of Rho kinase. It is a dual inhibitor because it also inhibits epinephrine plasma membrane protein along with Rho kinase. When it inhibits these two processes, on the other hand it increases trabecular outflow. The absorption of Rhopressa gives plasma concentration after about 8 days and it gets metabolize through estrases present in eye.

Rhopressa/netarsudil Dosage

         
Rhopressa is available in the form of ophthalmic solution concentration 0.02% (0.2mg/ml). Patient have to instill 1 drop in affected eye daily. It is recommended to administer in evening. If patient miss any dose then treatment should not be quit but it can be continued with next dose in evening. Precautions should be followed while administering Rhopressa drug. Like patient should try to instill drop directly into eye to avoid contamination and should take off soft contact lenses before administration in order to avoid absorption of benzalkonium chloride in lenses. If multiple drug drops are in treatment then there should be 5 min gap between every administration.


Rhopressa/netarsudil Side effects

         
Rhopressa is widely used drug as a treatment of open angle glaucoma but it also impart side effects along with its beneficial effects. The most common side effects reported by patients are redness in eye, pain in the area of instillation of eye drops. Hemorrhage may occur in conjunctiva. Corneal verticillata is also reported in many cases. Corneal staining, reduced visual acuity, erythema of eyelid, lacrimation may increase, vision may get blurred right after administration and persist for some time. Eye erythema at the site of instillation.


Rhopressa/netarsudil Uses/Prescribing Information


This new drug application provides for the use of Rhopressa (netarsudil ophthalmic solution)
0.02% for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or
ocular hypertension. We have completed our review of this application, as amended.

Rhopressa/netarsudil Cost


Rhopressa/netarsudil cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses .

Ixifi is the brand name of infliximab-qbtx. Infliximab have multiple functioning, as it falls in class of immunosuppressant, monoclonal antibodies, DMARDS, TNF inhibitors, antipsoriatics, systemic and inflammatory bowel disease agent. Ixifi for injection work as a blocker of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). It is indicated for reducing symptoms of many diseases like Crohn’s disease in pediatrics, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and plaque psoriasis. Where Ixifi drug is indicated for various diseases, it is also contraindicated in some conditions like in serious active infections, documented hypersensitivity and patients with heart failure should not take Ixifi dose exceeding 5 mg/kg.

If patients are treated with dose 10 mg/kg there are increased chances of death or hospitalization with severe heart failure. Ixifi also shows some drug interactions if multiple drugs are involved in therapy. Co administration of abatacept with TNF blockers can lead to serious infections. Overlapping of biological activity is also responsible for increased chances of infections. Ixifi is not allowed to take with vaccines or therapeutic infectious agents. Ixifi should only be used in pregnant women if clearly needed because drugs pass placental barrier and remain for about 6 months in serum after delivery and can cause infections.

Ixifiinfliximab-qbtx Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Mechanism of Action

       
Ixifi is known as agent of blocking tumor necrosis factor. It is a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody. It also prevents inflammation of intestine and synovial fluid. In case of Crohn’s disease it takes about 2 weeks for absorption. Its duration of action is about 12 week. Volume of distribution of Ixifi is 3 to 6 liter. Metabolism of infliximab is unknown. Its half-life is 7.7 to 9.5 days. When antibodies of infliximab are formed it increases clearance of infliximab. Its excretion is not known yet. This is the pharmacology of infliximab.

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Dosage

       
As it has multiple indications, so its dosage varies according to disease. In case of rheumatoid arthritis, 3 mg/kg IV at 0, 2 and 6 weeks and then for 8 weeks thereafter. Dose may be increased to 10 mg/kg. In psoriatic arthritis, 5 mg/kg IV at 0, 2 and 6 weeks. Same dosage is recommended in plaque psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis dosage recommended is 5 mg/kg/dose and should not increase because it can cause heart failure and ultimately death. Greater than 65 years of patients should use Ixifi with great caution.

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Side effects


According to its wide use in various diseases, its side effects also varies. Some of the side effects are as follows.

  • Infections may occur in upper respiratory tract, sinusitis and pharyngitis.
  • Cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Infection in urinary tract UTI
  • Reactions related to infusion
  • Pain in abdomen.
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Rash
  • Fatigue 
  • Fever
  • Pain in joints
  • Yeast infection
  • Indigestion
  • Itching.
  • High blood pressure i.e. hypertension. 

All the conditions mentioned above are most commonly occurring side effects. There are also some adverse effects regarding exceeding dose of Ixifi. So caution is required while dosing.

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Uses/Prescribing Information

Ixifi is indicated for the following indications.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in combination with methotrexate (reducing signs and symptoms, inhibiting the progression of structural damage). Psoriatic Arthritis (reducing signs and symptoms of active arthritis, inhibiting the progression of structural damage, and improving physical function. Ankylosing Spondylitis (reducing signs and symptoms in patients with active disease).

Ixifi/infliximab-qbtx Cost


Ixifi cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Ozempic/Semaglutide Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Ozempic/Semaglutide Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Ozempic is a subcutaneous injection used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Semalutide is the active ingredient of Ozempic. Semalutide is a human GLP receptor agonist. Main function of semalutide is albumin binding. Ozempic is a sterile, colorless, aqueous and clear solution. Along with active ingredient, it also have some inactive ingredients like disodium phosphate dehydrate, propylene glycol, phenol and water. The pH of Ozempic is about 7.4. pH stabilizers are also added to maintain pH of subcutaneous injection. Hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide are added to stabilize pH of Ozempic solution. It is available in the form of pen.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a condition in which patient suffer from insulin resistance with high blood sugar level. Also with less production of insulin. It show symptoms like increased thirst, increased urination, and weight loss. It normally occurs in middle or older age. It occurs due to obesity or genetics or lack of exercise. So its treatment include balanced diet and exercise along with medication. Ozempic is used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. Insulin therapy is continued with Ozempic dosing. Ozempic in type 2 diabetes mellitus cannot be used as substitute for insulin.
     
Ozempic is an insulin companion and works with it. Used specifically for diabetes mellitus type 2. It is a GLP-1 receptor agonist or also GLP-1 analog. Semalutide modify 26th position of lysine to enable albumin binding. Semalutide change lysine position with hydrophilic spacer and C18 fatty di-acid.

OzempicSemaglutide Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses


Ozempic/Semaglutide Side effects

   
Ozempic also have some side effects and adverse effects reported. There is a greater risk of thyroid c-cell tumor. Pancreatitis can occur. There may be complications in Diabetic retinopathy.Hypoglycemia can occur if insulin secretagogues or insulin is used concomitantly. Some clinical trials also reported about hypersensitivity reactions. Rash and allergy due to rubbing in hypersensitivity reaction. Kidney injury or failure is also involved because of its elimination route through kidney. In order to avoid these all above mentioned diseases, Ozempic should be used with great care and with proper precautions.


Ozempic/Semaglutide Uses

     
Ozempic is used as an adjunct to exercise and diet in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is used to control blood glucose level. It is never used as a 1st line therapy for patients who have glycemic control on diet and exercise. Patients with pancreatitis cannot use Ozempic because it is also reported with pancreatitis as side or adverse effect. Ozempic cannot be used in place of insulin and also it is not recommended for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Also diabetic ketoacidosis cannot be treated with Ozempic. Ozempic will not be effective in above mentioned conditions.


Ozempic/Semaglutide Dosage

       
Starting dose of Ozempic should be 0.25mg subcutaneous which should be administer once a week for up to 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the dose is increased up to 0.5mg per week. If still there is a need of glycemic control, then dosage is further increased up to 1 mg per week. It is the maximum recommended dose. Ozempic can be administered at any time of the selected day of week and can be administered with or without meal. If any dose of Ozempic is missed by chance, then patient should administer the missed dose within 5 days of the dose day.

Ozempic/Semaglutide Cost

Ozempic cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Admelog Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Admelog Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses.

Admelog is a short acing insulin. It is also known as insulin lispro injection. Its functions are similar to insulin and used to control blood sugar level in peads and adults. It is used against both type of diabetes i.e. type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. But it have some specifications like it is used in peads with type 1 diabetes and used in adults with type 2 diabetes. It is the 1st ever discovered short acting insulin to control blood glucose level. It is available in intravenous dosage form. Short acting insulin i.e. admelog is preferred in some cases as compare to intermediate and long acting insulin.

Diabetes is a disease related to decreased production of a hormone named insulin. Insulin is produced by liver in human body and its main function is to control blood glucose level. In diabetes, blood glucose level increases due to decrease in production of insulin by liver or body is no more showing response to insulin. It will lead to abnormal metabolism process of carbs which will ultimately increase blood glucose level. So artificial insulin is prepared and injected in body to control blood glucose level. Admelog is one short acting insulin used for that purpose.

Insulin has a main and primary activity of regulating the glucose metabolism. Insulin admelog stimulate peripheral glucose uptake to skeletal muscle and fat in order to decrease blood glucose level. It also inhibit glucose production from liver. It inhibit lipolysis and proteolysis with enhancement of protein synthesis.

Admelog Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses


Admelog Side effects

       
Admelog is approved after many research and clinical trials. During clinical trials, along with its effective uses its side effects are also reported. Admelog have some severe side effects like high dose of admelog can cause hypoglycemia and this can be fatal for patient life. It also cause itching and rash on skin due to rubbing. Allergic reactions are also reported. Reaction can occur at the site of injection. Sometimes tissues at the site of injection (mostly tummy) get thick and fatty or get thin and this condition is known as lipo dystrophy.

Admelog Uses

         
Admelog is a type of insulin which is short acting. Insulin is used in treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is effective and can be used in both types. It is used for type 1 diabetes mellitus in peads and used for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. It is short acting insulin with small half-life and short duration of action and have fast and sudden onset. It is preferred in few cases with diabetes mellitus like in emergency situation for sudden result. It is discovered and approved recently by FDA (food drug authority).

Admelog Dosage

       
Admelog is available in injectable solution form with dosage 100 units/ml and vial is of 10 ml. it is also available in injectable pen form with same dosage described in injectable solution. Short acting admelog is used in type 1 diabetes at the start of day before meal to satisfy whole day insulin requirement. It should be used with 4 units i.e. 0.1 unit per kg. And should be administered 15 min before meal. Or 10 % basal dose may be used instead. If A1C is less than 8% then basal insulin dose should be decreased at same amount.

Admelog Cost

Admelog cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Xepi/OZENOXACIN Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses

Xepi/OZENOXACIN Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses.

Xepi is a dosage form of an antibiotic used to treat different infections and wounds. Xepi is an antiseptic combination. It is also used to kill bacteria. It is available as Xepi scrub PVP. It is the dosage form of drug named povidone iodine. It is an antiseptic and used on surfaces of wound or minor infections. Its active ingredient is povidone iodine and inactive ingredients are surfactants and moisturizers. It is available in 100 and 500 ml bottles. Avagard 7.5 % PVP scrub is its famous brand available and some other names are wokadine surgical scrub, povin, alphadine etc.

Impetigo is a skin infection, which is caused by bacteria. Red colored sores are formed which upon rupturing, release fluid and upon drying, it turns into a yellow colored or brown colored crust. It is contagious and is caused by streptococcus and staphylococcus. This skin infection can be treated with Xepi scrub PVP. It is spread evenly on the blisters in the form of an ointment and cream. It will help in preventing spreading of disease. And its treatment require about 24 hours to get under control. Impetigo is a disease for which Xepi Is indicated.

Xepi have an active ingredient named povidone iodine. It has a broad spectrum and active against many microbes. It works by destroying protein and DNA of microbes by invading. It has an antimicrobial activity. It has minimal systemic effect when used as topical dosage form.

Xepi/OZENOXACIN Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for Impetigo


Xepi/OZENOXACIN Side effects

         
Where drugs have many uses there it also have some side effects. Along with uses, its side effects are also reportedlike hypersensitivity reactions can occur in the form of irritation and sometimes fever. Skin eruptions is another form of hypersensitivity reaction. If any of these condition appear, the use of Xepi should be discontinued. Iodine start getting absorb from extensive surfaces. If it is applied on severe burns and deep cuts, there is a chance of occurrence of adverse systemic effects which are related to iodine absorption. It also have some side effects related staining of fabric.

Xepi/OZENOXACIN Uses

         
Xepi is used for many purposes specifically or generally. It may be used to treat the disease or controlling the symptoms of any disease. Usage of drug totally depends upon the condition and severity of infection. Drugs are more effective in IV form as compare to tablet.Topical dosage form is least effective but in wounds and infections, it have greater effect as topical application. It is specifically used to treat infections spread from a wound and on emergency note, is used to prevent spreading of infection. It is used on small cuts, burns, blisters and abrasions.


Xepi/OZENOXACIN Dosage

       
Dosage of xepi varies according to the condition it is used for. Like in case of oral hygiene adults should rinse their mouth with 10 ml of 0.1% solution if it is diluted. And if is undiluted, equal amount of water is added and should be used qid for 14 days. Child can use the same dosage. In case of oral candidiasis, mouth should be rinsed with 1% mouth wash solution. As topical use, topical powders (0.5 to 5%) are applied on surface. In vaginal candidiasis, pessaries are used in 200 mg w/w form by placing them in vagina.


Xepi/OZENOXACIN Cost

Xepi cost is difficult to evaluate at the moment as according to market survey this drug is currently not available at retail pharmacies because it is recently approved by FDA and is under manufacturing process. Once, it will be available at retail outlets we will let you know about the unit cost of drug and its dosage frequency.

Sublocade/buprenorphine Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses Opioid use disorder

Sublocade/buprenorphine Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses Opioid use disorder. The FDA granted the approval of Sublocade to Indivior Inc.

US FDA approved drug Sublocade that contains buprenorphine as a active pharmaceutical ingredient for the treatment of moderate to severe opioid use disorder (OUD) in adult patients. This is the first once monthly injectable buprenorphine product. Availability of this drug is restricted to those pharmacies or hospital who are certified in REMS Program.

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a condition that is directly related to  opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress. Symptoms of opioid use disorder are strong desire to use opioids, enhanced tolerance rate and withdrawal syndrome in case opioids are abruptly stopped to administer. These symptoms may become severe if patient is misusing or overdosing opioids for longer period of time.

Opioids are basically medicinal products that are derived from synthetic or semi-synthetic sources for the relieving intense pain like trauma pain, Injuries, post operative pain or cancer pain. Supply of these products are kept under restriction due to their possible misuses or overdosing. Nalaxone is another important therapeutic drug used in case of opiod overdosing.

Sublocade Injection contains buprenorphine. Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the mu receptor and antagonist at the kappa opioid receptor.

Sublocadebuprenorphine Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses Opioid use disorder

Sublocade/buprenorphine Side effects


Following side effects can be expected during the course of administration of this drug.

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pain at injection site
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Rashes on skin
  • Fluctuation in the level of liver enzymes
  • Pruritis
  • Sleep disturbance

Sublocade/buprenorphine Uses/Prescribing Information


US FDA approved Sublocade for the treatment of moderate to severe opioid use disorder in patients who have initiated treatment with a transmucosa buprenorphine containing product, followed by dose adjustment for a minimum of 7 days.

Sublocade/buprenorphine Dosage


Subcloade is injected in the abdominal area. Standard dosage frequency of Sublocade is 300 mg followed by 100 mg monthly maintenance doses. Maintenance doses might be increase depending upon the response rate and tolerance level of patient.

Sublocade/buprenorphine Cost

Sublocade/buprenorphine is now available at retail outlets with average cost of 33,000$ per pack (30ml) with potency of 300mg/1.5. This cost may variate with the passage of time so, make it confirm by visiting your nearby pharmacy before purchasing.

Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for Certain Cancers

Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for Certain Cancers. The FDA granted approval of Ogivri to Mylan GmbH. Herceptin was approved in September 1998 and is manufactured by Genentech, Inc.

US FDA approved new drug Ogivri that is a a biosimilar to Herceptin (trastuzumab) for the treatment of certain kind of metastatic cancers like metastatic breast cancer or metastatic stomach cancer. A biosimilar product is a pharmaceutical product that is similar to a reference product which already been approved by the US FDA and has no therapeutic differences in terms of safety, purity and potency.

Stomach cancer is also termed as gastric cancer. Early signs ans symptoms of stomach cancers are weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. In later stages patient may feel difficulty in swallowing and have blood in stool. Pain in upper abdominal area may also be a symptoms of gastric metastasis. In later stages it becomes difficult to treat stomach cancer because it spreads to other areas like bones, lungs, liver.

Breast cancer is one of the leading cause of death in females due to cancer. Initially, it appears as a lump inside the breast that growth with the passage of time and reaches to progressive metastatic stage. There are no obvious symptoms at initial stages that makes it hard to diagnose earlier. Later on patient may feel bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, shortness of breath and mild fever in some cases also been reported.

This drug encodes a transmembrane receptor protein of 185 kDa, which is structurally related to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Trastuzumab products have been shown, in both in vitro assays and in animals, to inhibit the proliferation of human tumor cells that overexpress HER2.

Ogivritrastuzumab-dkst Cost, Side effects, Dosage, Uses for Certain Cancers


Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst Side effects


Following side effects were observed during clinical trials of this drug.

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Mild fever
  • Weakness
  • Rashes on body
  • Less white blood cells count
  • Less red blood cells count
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Pain in abdomen
  • Edema like condition
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Changes in taste sensation


Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst Uses/Prescribing Information


Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst is a a biosimilar to Herceptin (trastuzumab) for the treatment of certain kind of metastatic cancers like metastatic breast cancer or metastatic stomach cancer. According to data provided by health authorities this drug should be avoided in pregnancy due to fetal abnormalities.

Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst Dosage


This drug is administered via intravenous route.

It is dosage frequency is 4 mg/kg as a 90 minute IV infusion followed by subsequent weekly doses of  2 mg/kg as 30 minute IV infusions in case of Metastatic HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer.

Initial dose of 8 mg/kg over 90 minutes IV infusion, followed by 6 mg/kg over 30 to 90 minutes IV infusion every 3 weeks in case of Metastatic HER2-Overexpressing Gastric Cancer.


Ogivri/trastuzumab-dkst Cost


This drug is administered by your healthcare practitioner (HCP), which usually means:
  • It may comes under special items category.
  • You cannot fill this prescription in a regular pharmacy. Your doctor, hospital, or clinic will provide this  medication because of possible complications or other issues.
  • This drug is likely to be covered under your medical benefit if you have insurance.